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Clock Concurrent Optimization:
Timing divergence has a critical impact on the economic viability of migrating to sub-65nm process nodes. Clock concurrent optimization (CCOpt) is a revolutionary new approach to timing optimization: it merges physical optimization into clock tree synthesis and simultaneously optimizes clock delay and logic delay using a single unified cost metric. With CCOpt technology, engineers can achieve timing convergence and have a new degree of freedom to design and integrate faster, smaller, lower-power digital chips. Cadence
Solving Engineering File
Optimize the Engineering Design Workflow and Send your Large Files Faster... OpenText connectivity Solutions Group
Three Things you need
Three primary considerations for adopting Accellera Portable Stimulus Standard (PSS) are understanding the following: the value and relevance of this minset; and PSS portability and how these scenarios can be applied to a specfic platform. In this paper, we explore these three topics Cadence
Visual System Simulator
Achieving the highest possible performance from circuits used in third-and fourth-generation wireless systems is driving a tighter integration of previously disparate tools. Certainly, a level of software synergy is essential when designing circuits for use in today’s wireless systems that employ higher-order modulation techniques together with advanced technologies, such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and digital predistortion (DPD) circuits, to name a few. As this white paper illustrates, AWR’s Visual System Simulator (VSS) and National Instruments’ LabVieW graphical programming nvironment are now co-simulating so as to better enable designers to analyze, optimize, and verify complex RF circuits, subsystems and digital signal processing within a unified framework. AWR Corporation
Understanding Grounding
Misunderstanding how ground is implemented in circuit simulation is one of the most common misuses of electromagnetic (EM) simulators and their results. This white paper discusses the defi nition of ground in EM simulators and how to correctly choose among various grounding options, a topic of special importance to designers using the results in a circuit simulator. Many modern simulators now support the notion of local grounding, where different ports can use different ground defi nitions. New features in AWR’s AXIEM™ 2009 3D planar EM simulator offer extensive sources/ports and de-embedding options, including internal edge, fi nite difference/gap and extraction ports, and per-port, coupled line and mutual group de-embedding. AWR Corporation
A Plethora of Ports:
Electromagnetic (EM) simulation technology software has come a long way since it first became popular for microwave and RF circuit design back in the 1980s. With the sophistication of today’s EM tools, it is sometimes difficult to remember how limited those early simulators were. The author is old enough to remember when a challenging problem for a 3D planar simulator consisted of a coupled-line filter with 1000 unknowns and 3D finite element simulators were stressed by a simple multi-layer via transition in a package. AWR Corporation
A Basic Mathematical
Electronic Design Automation (EDA) has been one of the great enabling technologies for modern electronics, including the class of analog circuits classified by their operating frequencies: RF/wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, etc. Initially distinct and discrete software tools were developed for (logical) circuit simulation and (physical) layout, and these were later augmented by physical verification (DRC & LVS), system simulation, and electromagnetic analysis (EM). Later still, all of these tools came together under unifying environments providing a common database and standardized graphical (schematic) entry. AWR Corporation
High-Speed Serial Backplane
The benefit to having high-frequency design tools resident on a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) does not become obvious until the time comes to compare simulation to measurements. At this point, the advantage of a more streamlined work flow -- without the impediment of transferring data to a simulator running on a separate PC or workstation - becomes clear. To illustrate the benefit of such a novel, integrated solution (AWR’s Microwave Office software “inside” the Anritsu VectorStar VNA), this application note follows the design flow for a high-speed serial backplane. AWR Corporation
Matching Network for
One of the most common tasks required of an RF engineer is basic impedance matching. AWR’s Microwave Office® software has included this ability for a long time now via a manual ‘step through’ matching process, however, the latest release of AWR’s Microwave Office now supports the addition of an automated impedance matching wizard, coined iMatch, that allows the user to quickly compare different matching topologies and choose the best solution based upon requirements. AWR Corporation
Design and Synthesis
Next generation high power, high and width electronic devices rely on well-designed RF/microwave components for peak performance. In the specialized world of RF and microwave engineering, the design and development of power amplifi ers (PAs) is a specialty within a specialty that requires many years of focused engineering experience and a suitable collection of test and measurement (T&M) equipment. AWR Corporation
Exactly How EM Should
Modern RF/microwave design flows make extensive use of electromagnetic (EM) analysis in many ways, and its co-existence and concurrency with circuit design and analysis can not be underestimated. Prior to the circuit design and especially in larger designs, EM tools are used to create “library” parts such as inductors, transitions, and antennas. While these parts are fairly self-contained, they must ultimately be integrated into the overall design where at the very least they must be connected to the rest of the circuit or in a more complex case be coupled to it. During both early and later stages of design, designers will switch from circuit-based models to EM analysis of critical interconnects to better understand couplings and achieve greater accuracy. EM analysis is used again before the design goes to manufacturing, so that the metal in the design can be analyzed one more time to verify circuit performance alongside design rule check (DRC ), layout versus schematic (LVS), and even design for manufacturability. AWR Corporation
High-Power Amplifier
SYMMIC from CapeSym is a template-based thermal simulator that has been optimized for monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) design. This application note demonstrates the integration of Microwave Office and SYMMIC. The integration is script-based and requires minimum manual ntervention as compared to non-integrated thermal solvers. The example used here is an extension of the MMIC high power amplifier (HPA) example that is part of the standard Microwave Office set of examples. AWR Corporation
Design and Optimization
3D electromagnetic (EM) simulators are commonly used to help design board-to-chip transitions. AWR now makes life easier for circuit designers with the introduction of Analyst, a full featured, 3D EM fi nite element method (FEM) simulator. The key advantage of Analyst over other available 3D simulators is its tight integration within the Microwave Offi ce® design environment, AWR’s circuit design and simulation platform. This application note highlights the unique features of Analyst by demonstrating the optimization of the transition from a board-to- -chip signal path. The example shows how the ability to access Analyst from within in the Microwave Offi ce environment saves designers time and provides ready access to powerful layout and simulation tools that are not available in typical circuit design tools. AWR Corporation
ACE - Automated Circuit
The Traditional approach to RF/MW circuit design – which is the present day foundation for high-frequency wireless design applications – is being pressured simultaneously by an increase in operating frequencies / bandwidth and a decrease in physical footprint size. The result is that the physical design challenges faced by circuit designers are rapidly increasing, while choices for how these challenges should be best-addressed are not. AWR Corporation
AWR's Support of Polyharmonic
Linear and nonlinear device models are the building blocks of most RF and microwave designs. S-parameters are often used to represent linear devices. As a “black-box” model, they can easily be obtained using a vector network analyzer and distributed for simulation. S-parameters use superposition to equate the linear relationship between incident and refl ected waves at all of the device’s ports. Nonlinear devices, however, distort waveforms such that their behavior cannot be represented through superposition or S-parameters. AWR Corporation
Design Flow for Base
Automated synthesis of microwave devices has been gaining in popularity in CAE applications over the past decade. Antenna Magus now brings this capability to the fi eld of antenna design. Antenna Magus provides a structured catalog of antennas (monitor image below) with concise documentation, robust design algorithms, and export models. AWR Corporation
End-to-end Design and
The X-band frequency range has been designated for critical military and public safety applications such as satellite communications, radar, terrestrial communications and networking, and space communications. It is important to ensure that these signals deliver quality, reliable, and secure communications. This application note describes the design and realization of a complex X-band transmission analyzer for use in real-time material testing. AWR Corporation
The Advantages of Multi-rate
Harmonic balance (HB) analysis is a method used to calculate the nonlinear, steady-state frequency response of electrical circuits. It is extremely well-suited for designs in which transient simulation methods prove acceptable, such as dispersive transmission lines in which circuit time constants are large compared to the period of the simulation frequency, as well as for circuits that have a large number of reactive components. In particular, harmonic balance analysis works extremely well for microwave circuits that are excited with sinusoidal signals, such as mixers and power amplifiers. AWR Corporation
Synthesizing & Optimizing
Like all RF and microwave components, a distributed filter design will remain only a simulation exercise if it is not created with its manufacturing process in mind. That is, the tight dimensional tolerances required to meet a set of performance goals must be within the capabilities of the filter’s manufacturing process in order to realize a reliable, repeatable filer AWR Corporation
Leverage Circuit Envelope
Moving to next-generation cellular systems requires new levels of performance from RF power amplifiers (PAs). While designing PAs has always included the challenge of maximizing efficiency while delivering high linearity, never have the tradeoffs been so difficult as they are for 4G/LTE. For instance, the latest higher-order modulation schemes require exceptional linearity throughout both transmit and receive signal paths, yet wireless carriers demand the highest possible efficiency at the system level. AWR Corporation
Understanding and Correctly
Understanding and correctly predicting cellular, radar, or satellite RF link performance early in the design cycle has become a key element in product success. The requirements of today’s complex, high performance wireless devices are driving designers to assess critical measurements—noise fi gure (NF), 1dB gain compression (P1dB), third order intermodulation distortion versus output power (IM3dBc), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)—long before manufacturing begins. Traditional modeling methods such as rules of thumb and spreadsheet calculations (Friis equations) give limited insight on the full performance of an RF link in next-generation wireless products. AWR Corporation
Design of a Near Field
Near field communication (NFC) is being developed as a form of contactless communication between wireless devices like smartphones and tablets. This technology enables users to do things like swipe their devices at the checkout stand or wave them over another NFC-compatible device to share information instantly without complicated setups or physical connections. AWR Corporation
Improved Circuit Design
To fi ne-tune an RF/microwave design to meet new design criteria, engineers turn to the built-in optimizers within their electronic design automation (EDA) software. A typical optimization case for a microwave filter, for instance, might include goals for in-band insertion loss and return loss, cutoff frequency, and out-of-band rejection. The large number of criteria that the optimization engine then has to take into consideration to create a landscape of “solutions” are more or less random, and, more often than not, quite large. AWR Corporation
Steady State and Transient
Thermal effects in electronic devices are studied to investigate their influence on reliability and electrical performance. Due to the decreasing size of semiconductor devices operating at unchanged power levels, thermal analyses provide circuit designers with important information about device degradation and electro-thermal coupling. Steady state thermal analyses have been performed for many years in electronics reliability engineering to evaluate device lifetimes. Device channel temperature is the most critical parameter to determine in such a reliability study as it is the primary source for thermal degradation mechanisms. Many techniques exist for modeling and measuring device channel temperatures, however large discrepancies are reported in the literature [1]. AWR Corporation
Understanding Available
RF system-in-package (SiP) and multi-chip-module (MCM) designs present engineers with the challenge of integrating complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits (ICs) for digital circuits and gallium arsenide (GaAs) or silicon germanium (SiGe) devices for RF and microwave circuits with soft-board laminates and low-temperature co-fi red ceramic (LTCC) packages. Software used to design these complex circuits must seamlessly bring together synthesis, simulation, and verifi cation solutions via a single interface in order to ensure optimum component design and placement in each technology. It must also construct schematics and perform physical design entry for any technology in the SiP using uniform commands and menu options. AWR Corporation
How to Optimize an LTE
Long Term Evolution (LTE) is rapidly being deployed by major US carriers and will serve most, if not all, top-tier markets some time during 2012. LTE is often called a fourth-generation (4G) standard, and provides signifi cantly increased peak data rates, with the potential for 100 Mbps downstream and 30 Mbps upstream, reduced latency, scalable bandwidth capacity, and backwards compatibility with existing Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) technology. AWR Corporation
Upfront RF Planning Speeds
High-frequency technology didn’t earn its reputation as black magic for no reason. Unlike low-frequency circuits, microwave circuits don’t behave in a totally predictable way, so “tweaking” has been an accepted mainstay of the microwave design approach/fl ow. Fortunately, high-frequency design tools have dramatically improved so that tweaking of prototype circuits is much less common, and today’s engineer has powerful tools that can make sense of the black magic. AWR Corporation
Using Visual System Simulator
The concept of software defined radio (SDR) has existed for many years. Consequently, you can find many descriptions of an SDR. A concise definition of an SDR is a radio in which some or all of the physical layer functions are software-defined. The physical layer function is the layer within the wireless protocol in which processing of RF, IF, or baseband signals (including channel coding) occurs. Many of today’s SDRs have part of the signal processing implemented in software. AWR Corporation
Hardware in the Loop:
When simulating a complete subsystem such as a wireless communication device or radar receiver, the quality of measurement data becomes essential to ensure that the fi nished product meets or exceeds the demands the system will encounter in service. The measurement data can be used to make changes to the system early in the design process, when those changes can be realized in the least amount of time and at the lowest cost. However, this can be accomplished only if there is a direct link between the system being simulated and the measurement equipment itself—that is, when there is “hardware in the loop.”AWR’s Visual System Simulator™ (VSS) combined with its TestWave™ software provides an end-to-end communications system simulation environment that makes this possible. AWR Corporation
Integration of Signal
The system supports easy design in cooperation with test and simulation processes using a signal analyzer/vector signal generator, as well as effective optimization of RF components and overall system performance. Using simulation based on actual measurement data reduces the amount of design and prototyping work, cutting R&D time and costs. Moreover, it can help match performance to requirements, preventing over-specification waste and cutting product costs. AWR Corporation
Using LabVIEW in the
Many veteran designers no doubt remember how comparatively simple it was to design base station or mobile phone amplifi ers when the only modulation technique was analog and amplifi er performance could be verifi ed using Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). Nowadays, second (and subsequent) generations of wireless networks usher in digital modulation techniques that necessitate the need to stimulate amplifi ers and other circuits with waveforms they actually process in service. It therefore necessitates far tighter integration between the baseband signal processing and high-frequency circuit design tools as well as actual test equipment for both generating these modulated waveforms and evaluating their effects on the performance of the design. AWR Corporation
End-To-End System Design:
Architectural tools used by designers of RF and microwave communications systems include budget simulators, spur searching utilities, and frequency planning tools, all of which are often based on spreadsheets or hard-coded algorithms with a non-commercial user interface. Having served designers well, these “home brew” approaches are limited in functionality and/or breadth, unsupported, and are as varied as the designers who create them. While the level of effort to create these tools was great and once acceptable (if only because there was no suitable alternative), few designers today have the time required to build their own design utilities nor massage existing legacy ones to meet growing requirements of today’s communciation systems. This white paper outlines the benefi ts of using a commercial, specialized software program, such as AWR’s Visual System Simulator™ (VSS) software for end-to-end system design, while also embracing legacy approaches with the incorporation of spreadsheet views. AWR Corporation
WAFERMAP is a scientific software to collect, edit, analyze and visualize measured physical parameters on semiconductor wafers. BOIN Scientific Software
TCAD Tools
TCAD Tools N/A
Micro-Cap V
The Micro-Cap V demo is a limited but working version of the main program, an easy to use mixed-mode analog/digital simulator with an integrated schematic editor. Spectrum Software
SpyGlass Flow for XILINX FPGA
SpyGlass Lint and CDC are critical analysis tools for RTL designs that identify chip killer problems and shorten design cycle time. This document highlights the issues that come up when taking a XILINX FPGA-based design through the default SpyGlass flow. With a script-ware based approach, the work required to make the design SpyGlass compatible is significantly reduced. The approach takes care of handling Xilinx library files, design files and design constraints. Synopsys Inc.
BSIM3v3 code and documentation University of California, Berkeley
Voyeur is a visualization tool that displays a circuit schematic on the screen. N/A
60nm and 90nm Interconnect
Section 1
-DSM Effects on RF Modeling
- Simple versus Complex Modeling Issues
- Dummy Metal and Slotting Effects -Spiral Inductor Example

Section 2
- DSM Modeling on Interconnects
- Dummy Metal Effects on Delay and Cross-talk for Long Interconnects

Section 3
- Power Delivery Inductance effects on Large Digital IC performance
-Solving RCLK models for VDD and VSS network combined
-Determining the size and placement of on-chip decoupling capacitances
OEA International, Inc.
Power Optimization and
Power Optimization and Synthesis Environment N/A
Sunsite's /pub/Linux/apps/circuits
Sunsite's /pub/Linux/apps/circuits directory Sunsite
A simple yet powerful layout language, BALLISTIC, has been created: high-level layout code can be written for designing automated opamp generators, standard cell layout generators, and other analog integrated circuits.
Multicycle path analysis
By default, a STA tool performs timing calculations based on single clock cycle behavior. There are cases, due to existence of slow logic between flops inside the ASIC/FPGA, where multi clock cycle behavior is required. The best way to explain multicycle behavior is by comparing it against single clock cycle behavior. ASICServe
Nemesis generates tests for stuck-at and bridgeIDDQ faults in combinational circuits, and simulates tests for stuck-at, bridge, and bridgeIDDQ faults in both combinational and sequential circuits. N/A
Verification IP
VIP Synopsys Inc.
Wave Semi Case Study: With FPGA designs approaching SOC levels of complexity, AXI has become the leading interconnect for IP in large FPGA projects. A significant portion of any AXI design involves software driving the interconnect. This case study covers the basics of AXI and shows how to leverage DPI to verify the same software code in an FPGA as well as in simulation. S2C inc
Introduction to TimingDesigner
TimingDesigner Movie
(note this movie is 23 minutes long)
EMA Design Automation
HES-7 ASIC Prototyping
Co-authored by: Slawek Grabowski and Zibi Zalewski, Aldec, Inc. & Kirk Saban, Xilinx, Inc.

This paper highlights possibilities of ASIC verification using FPGA-based prototyping, considering the latest Virtex®-7 devices and Aldec HES-7 dual Virtex-7 2000T FPGA ASIC prototyping board. In addition, the most common partitioning issues and resolutions are described.
Mastering the Magic of
Multi-patterning technology was introduced at the 20 nm node to overcome lithographic limitations in current IC manufacturing processes. While processes like double and triple patterning may sometimes seem like magic, successfully implementing multi-patterning compliance in the IC design and verification flow requires a thorough understanding of multi-patterning techniques and their impact on your design. Learn what multi-patterning is, why you need it, and how Calibre® Multi-Patterning software can help you effectively and efficiently incorporate multi-patterning into your leading-edge designs. Mentor Graphics
Carafe is the second generation IFA software designed to explicitly extract the bridge, break, gate oxide short (GOS), and transistor gate bridge/break faults that may be caused by spot defects using the layout of the circuit and given defect parameters. Regents of the University of California
QuickField 5.9
new release TeraAnalysis
Semiconductor Weekly
Research Wells Fargo Reseach
Altera video
video Altera Corp.
How A Call For SOS Improved
Milandr, a 15-year-old product company based in Moscow that builds high-reliability integrated circuit (IC) products for the aerospace, avionics, automotive, and consumer markets, discusses the use of Cadence Virtuoso and ClioSoft SOS to reduce cycle time and improve designer productivity. Cliosoft, Inc.
Well Fargo Research:
Research Wells Fargo
You Are In a Maze of
Featured Paper by Rich Edelman, Adam Rose, Andreas Meyer, Raghu Ardeishar & Jason Polychronopoulos

This paper will demonstrate building layered stimulus using OVM sequences and sequencers. Virtual sequences and virtual sequencers will be demonstrated by building a small collection of examples that can be used in layered stimulus verification environments. The main contribution of this paper is a new layering component that performs the standard layering task while minimizing user programming without requiring exotic connectivity, extended components or the use of the factory.
DVCon 2010
Common Pitfalls in MIPI
Featured Paper by

Jaspreet Singh Gambhir and Jitendra Puri

MIPI Alliance 2011
BAE Systems - Analog
Analog Office software and PDK support BAE System’s revolutionary mixed-signal photonics chip design AWR Corporation
Improve Reliability with
Power challenges in today's IC designs create a significant increase in verification complexity. Critical design rule checking of variable spacing rules for densely packed multi-voltage nets is often verified with the traditional use of marker layers, a tedious and error-prone technique. Without an efficient means of verifying variable spacing within nets, designers often play it safe and simply apply maximum spacing throughout specific areas of a design, wasting valuable design area. Learn how to:
  • Optimize design size with correct voltage spacing rules
  • Avoid TDDB within your designs
  • Improve reliability and free yourself from manual marker layers
Mentor Graphics
Pattern Matching: Blueprints
Design patterns have a wide variety of applications in the design, verification and test flows of IC development. From significantly reducing rule deck complexity to simplifying the task of avoiding known yield detractors to enhancing workflows such as design rule waiver recognition, pattern matching has become a useful tool throughout design, verification, and test process. Learn how Calibre® Pattern Matching software can help you implement automated pattern capture and pattern matching in your various IC flows for maximum success at emerging process nodes. Mentor Graphics
Analyzing Power Integrity
When a printed circuit board (PCB) includes a power plane that is near to signal traces or other power planes, there is a significant risk of energy transfer between parts of the system. Not only does this coupling lead to power switching noise being transferred into data signals, it also means that power supply systems may demonstrate additional resonances that are not seen in the individual components. This can affect the power integrity of the PCB and may reduce its speed or reliability. This paper will explore some of the potential power integrity issues that can affect a PCB and explain how simulation can be used to help reduce these effects. CST-Computer Simulation Technology
Using SystemVerilog Packages
Featured Paper by Kaiming Ho

This paper details some of the key features and frustrations of using the package construct in SystemVerilog. The package construct is compared to similar features in other languages such as the identically named construct in VHDL and namespaces in C++. Valuable lessons learned over the course of multiple projects in the development of verification environments are described, and the paper makes recommendations for basic DOs and DONTs for SystemVerilog package use. The theme of code reusability is always important, and tips on how packages can be used to achieve this are discussed.
DVCon 2010
Semiconductor Weekly
Research Wells Fargo Reseach
ESL anyone
This presentation and talk will present the two major approaches to ESL design entry and what is expected of the designer in each case. A specific coding example will be presented illustrating what is expecting too much of a C to RTL compiler, (and thus gets both the designer and the tool into trouble), plus the coding required to remedy the problem. Open-Silicon
Great Connections for
I am struck at how easy it is to get used to “good enough” ways of working. Often we fail to notice new innovations that can make our tasks easier and boost our productivity and reduce risk to success. When asked about connecting to other design team members locally and worldwide, engineers might think of a VPN link to their office computer or the headquarters email server. However, they would be missing the exciting developments of a whole new way of working that brings collaborative resources to bear on the design process, so that design creation, verification and integration is easier and less costly to do.
The Secret to Building
At 7nm and beyond, the cost and time to develop IP is very high. To gain a suitable return, it's critical to have an efficient design methodology that produces a portfolio of attractive solutions in many process variants, metal stacks, Vt selections, and even completely different foundries. TCI employs a range of fascinating techniques, from building robust circuits, to using proprietary extensions of CAD tools to creating designs and deliverables from one, universal database. In this presentation John will explain the engineering behind a highly automated CAD flow that enables TCI to maximize IP consistency, quality and reuse. True Circuits, Inc.
UVM Reference Flow Overview
An overview of the UVM Reference Flow community contribution from Cadence. Presentation reviews what is the UVM Reference Flow contents, discusses roadmap and legal considerations, along with other facts needed for users looking to have a standardized reference for the UVM. Cadence Design Systems, Inc.
Semiconductor Weekly
Report Wells Fargo Reseach
A Smart Synchronizer
Featured Paper by Priyank Parakh & Steven J Kommrusch

In order to achieve satisfactory verification coverage in an asynchronous design, it is highly desirable to model a synchronizer with all the checks that can help catch the problem. Modeling uncertainty caused by metastable values at the output of the synchronizer is one of them.
DVCon 2011
Overcoming Timing Closure
In wide chip interfaces like DDR, HBM and ONFI, it can be challenging to synthesize and connect high-frequency controllers to the PHY hard macros. Clock trees can be expansive, pushing tools to their limits, and often multiple clock domains are needed. Jitter can also be an issue on long paths. In this presentation Brian will show how True Circuits PLL and DLL IP is being used by multiple customers to build ONFI and HBM subsystems in advanced TSMC process nodes, and discuss the tradeoffs and timing budget concerns among different timing architectures. In addition, he will explain how source-synchronous signaling is used in our DDR PHY to ease timing closure, and to allow the memory controller to be synthesized for high-frequency operation, which reduces its size and lowers its latency. By using a soft IP "shim" between the memory controller and PHY, the memory controller only needs a single localized clock tree, reducing mismatch and jitter. The long routes between the soft shim and the PHY hard macros are source-synchronous, so data/strobe groups need only be roughly matched, something easily accomplished by place and route tools. True Circuits, Inc.
Semiconductor Weekly Dec. 20
Research Wells Fargo Reseach
Semiconductor Weekly, Dec. 6
Industry Analysis Wells Fargo Reseach
Randomization and Functional
Modern digital designs reach the scale of complete systems and require support of Constrained Random Test and Functional Coverage in verification. Although VHDL does not have built-in, direct support for those methodologies, there are neat solutions that allow their quick implementation in your testbench. Aldec
Automated approach to
Featured Paper by Ballori Banerjee , Subashini Rajan & Silpa Naidu

Today's designs contain several hundreds to thousands of registers and memory elements. Starting from documentation to design implementation to verification of each single register, each bit and its property involves a lot of time and complexity.
DVCon 2011
Digital Place and Route
Mixing digital automation with analog customization to provide a state-of-the-art mixed-signal design flow

There is a category of high-end integrated circuits (ICs) – often referred to as "analog-on-top" since the top level description is a SPICE netlist – that predominantly comprise analog circuitry augmented with blocks of digital functionality. Until recently, these digital blocks were relatively small, each typically containing only a few tens, hundreds, or (sometimes) thousands of logic cells. Such blocks were often handcrafted by the analog designers using traditional custom design capture and layout technologies.
SpringSoft, Inc.
DFM Introduction
DFM defines the concept of considering the product from the beginning of the design/planning stage to the finished assembly. Considering all of the aspects that go into the development of a prototype before you begin layout will aid you in developing better forecasts for development and production costs as 80% of all product cost is fixed at the time of design. Omni Graphics Ltd.
Die Level Process Monitors
In the silicon debug process, the basic question needs to be answered; do I have a process problem or a design problem? Unlike conventional ring oscillator based, scribe line based structures, Ridgetop's patented approach provides fabless semiconductor firms with effective tools to help accelerate silicon debug. Ridgetop's proven die level test structures allow more precise monitoring and troubleshooting for advanced IC design. Self-contained and occupying minimal space, the structures can be used to measure critical mismatch parameters and the extent of NBTI effects (intermittencies). Ridgetop Group, Inc.
PCell Caching in OpenAccess
Cashing in on Legacy PCells

In computer programs, caching is used to store the output from commonly used functions on the disk so that, when executing a repeated instruction, the results may be obtained more quickly without having to reprocess the request. This same mechanism can be used to speed up the display of parameterized cells (PCells) in custom IC design. Some Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools cache PCells automatically for performance reasons; some require additional licenses; and others offer no caching at all. In addition to the performance benefits, PCell caching can be used to make tool-specific PCells visible in other tools in the design flow.
SpringSoft, Inc.
Gates-on-the-Fly fixes
Logical Equivalence Checking software like Cadence’s Conformal and Synopsys’ Formality create detailed reports of differences and errors, but it is often difficult to find, view, and fix the logic cones involved with the errors. SynaptiCAD’s Gates-on-the-Fly (GOF) can be used to easily find and view these specific logic cones on a schematic so that you can visualize just the paths you need to see without unnecessary clutter. GOF also simplifies mapping from RTL level constructs to their gate-level equivalents, so that you can pinpoint the locations where changes need to be made. And GOF's ECO mode supports both graphical and script-based editing features for tracking ECO changes. Metal-only ECO operations are also supported with an automatic spare gates flow. SynaptiCAD, Inc.
Reduce Power, Area and
This paper, using an example design, demonstrates how to meet challenging performance, latency and bandwidth goals by using the DesignWare® Interconnect Fabric for the ARM® AMBA® 3 AXI™ while minimizing the total area, power consumption and number of top-level wires. The paper also studies the design requirements and examines the optimization features of the DesignWare Interconnect Fabric used to meet the stringent timing requirements. Detailed technical analysis is provided for the selected architecture, pipelining mode, arbitration scheme and the slave visibility feature employed to reach timing closure for the links with demanding performance requirements. Final results are presented based on the hybrid architecture of the DesignWare Interconnect Fabric used to optimize the infrastructure resulting in a reduction in area, power and routing congestion. Synopsys Inc.
Expect faster adoption
Integrated Development Environments have been popular in the software world for many years. While the first platforms were dedicated to a single language, modern systems such as Eclipse and Netbeans are structured so that they can be configured for different languages using plugins. This means that the IDE developer can exploit a stable code base and focus on producing a configuration for the language of interest. Since verification testbench writing is essentially a software activity, it was no surprise when IDEs for the popular e language started appearing in 2006. Indeed, there are also IDEs available for the Verilog and VHDL Hardware Description Languages (HDLs) and, more recently, for System Verilog. AMIQ
Choosing the best pin
S2C white paper for choosing the best pin multiplexing method for your Multiple-FPGA partition S2C inc
Sustainable Innovation
At a time when building a new global “sustainable economy” requires that we fundamentally change the way we work and live, High-Tech & Electronics companies are more than ever hard-pressed to create the next generation of innovative and sustainable smart and green products. Dassault Systèmes
S2IBIS3 V1.1
The Most Popular Free Spice to IBIS Conversion Tool IO Methodology Inc.
University College Dublin
This project challenged students to design and prototype a wideband sequential power amplifier (PA). Sequential PAs offer similar efficiency benefits to Doherty PAs, but without the inherent narrowband restrictions. As part of the design challenge, a high-efficiency, broadband, 45 W peaking PA was required. A broadband Lange coupler for use as the output power combiner was required as well. Both of these designs were to be used in conjunction with a preexisting 10 W main amplifier. AWR Corporation
A New Method to Improve
Tomorrow's memory standards hold the promise of higher performance. With the uncertain future of which protocols will emerge as industry standards many system architects conservatively choose from current DDR standards - adopting a "wait and see" approach. However, the needs to improve system performance and reduce power consumption are still paramount with next generation products. With memory subsystems representing significant influences on these two areas, designers must find new methods to improve the performance of memory sub-systems. The Performance-IP method discussed here is implemented using small, distributed, logic elements requires no code changes and does not require the increase of system clock rates. Performance-IP LLC
A Practical Look @ SystemVerilog
Featured Paper by Doug Smith & John Aynsley

Functional verification of today’s large and complex designs is a major challenge and bottleneck. As a result, various tools, techniques, and languages have been developed to automate as much as possible to maximize productivity. For example, automatic testbench generation of random stimulus offers a significant aid in finding obscure and hard-to-find bugs.
DVCon 2011
High Performance Computing
CST - Computer Simulation Technology
Cadence EDA360 Vision Paper
Today, systems and semiconductor companies are undergoing a disruptive transformation so profound that even the best-known companies will be impacted. The EDA industry now stands at a crossroads where it also must change in order to continue as a successful, independent business. The disruptive transformation we are speaking of is not about EDA developing new design tools. It is not about new methodologies. It is not about the functional verification crisis, or the move to electronic system level (ESL) design, or any of the issues that have dominated discussions about EDA to date. It is about something much larger. It begins with a shift from design creation to integration in the electronic systems industry, and results in a new focus on profitability. This realization, in turn, opens the way to EDA 360, a new vision for what the EDA industry can become. Cadence Design Systems, Inc.
An overview - Aizyc Technology
Aizyc Technology is a semiconductor design services and SoC IP company. Available IP Cores - SDIO 3.0 Host & Device, USB 2.0 IP, Ethernet IP + TOE, MIPI SLIMBUS. Services include Chip Design, Silicon Validation, Physical Design, Firmware & Embedded systems development. Aizyc Technology
TLM-2.0 in SystemVerilog
Featured Paper by Mark Glasser & Janick Bergeron

Transaction-level modeling (TLM) is a methodology for building models at high levels of abstraction, those above RTL. TLM-2.0 is a library that contains classes that implements a methodology for building transaction-level models in systemC and connecting them together.
DVCon 2011
Time-Dependent Analysis
Featured Paper by M.S. Yeoman

Trefoil cable formation is used where three phases are carried by three single core power cables rather than a single multicore cable. The advantage of installing three single core cables in such a configuration is that it minimizes the induction of eddy currents, which reduce the effect of localized heating, while maintaining the current carrying capacity of the circuit. Trefoil cleats, are structures used to hold the three single core power cables in a trefoil form, along the length of the laid cables. Manufacturers of trefoil cleats are required to physically test their cleat designs to failure in an applied test, where a section of three single core power cables are held with the cleats and then short circuited. The resulting high dynamic electromagnetic forces being produced from the short circuiting of the three single phase cables, need to be held & maintained by the trefoil cleat. These, physical test can be costly in terms of both cost & time. In order to reduce the cost of trefoil cleat design & development, a time-dependent COMSOL Multiphysics model, including currents, induced electromagnetic forces, material plasticity & contact analysis has been set up to fully describe and simulate the dynamic load conditions on the cable & cleat design. Comparisons to physical tests & calculations using the test standard & empirical data show excellent comparisons. The model developed can now be used to quickly assess trefoil cleat designs without the huge expense & time.
Application of SystemC/SystemC-AMS
Featured Paper by Tao Huang & Stefan Heinen

In this paper, we describe the application of the Timed Data Flow (TDF) feature of the recently released SystemC-AMS standard in the context of a 3G modem Virtual Prototype.
DVCon 2011
Simple & Rapid Design
Featured Paper by Thomas Alsop, Wayne Clift, Luke Hood & Jeff Gray

SystemVerilog Test Bench (SVTB) is a set of language extensions to the IEEE 1800 SV LRM used to reduce the amount of time and effort required to write tests which exercise SystemVerilog (SV) RTL code. Design Verification or more correctly defined “Design Exercise” is a methodology in which pre-defined basic boundary conditions of a design must be tested before submitting code to the project‟s official codebase.
DVCon 2011
Analyzing RF Coexistence
A typical smartphone handset can contain numerous different RF systems, including multi-band cellular antennas, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, NFC and navigation systems such as GPS and GLONASS. All these systems need to be able to coexist without causing cosite interference. This application note shows how CST STUDIO SUITE® and Delcross EMIT can be used to investigate interference between antennas on a smartphone, and how potential mitigation strategies can be investigated using simulation. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
FPGA design tutorial
This FPGA design tutorial covers various issues in the fields of FPGA design, simulation and synthesis. It is targeted towards both beginners and experienced FPGA designers. 1-CORE Technologies
Utilization of COMSOL
Featured Paper by L. Teich, A. Hütten & C. Schröder

One of the big advantages of COMSOL Multiphysics is the possibility to implement user-defined partial differential equations (PDE) which can be coupled to COMSOL's predefined physics interfaces. However, using the tool’s standard user interface requires manual implementation of the PDEs and a multitude of problem-specific parameters. This process is not just error-prone but also very time consuming. As an alternative to this manual implementation one can use COMSOL’s Java Application Programming Interface (API) which provides an easy and efficient way to create a user-defined simulation package. Here, we demonstrate the usage of COMSOL's Java API by our implementation of a micromagnetic modeling and simulation package.
Dynamic Design Analysis
Static analysis tools provide many types of insight into the design and are being widely used to detect and prevent various potential problems with designs. Applied during various phases of the design project, they can detect minor issues to the most serious errors in designs. Tools in this category include Design Rule Checking (DRC), Clock Domain Analysis, Automatic Formal Verification and Formal Verification Tools. AXIOM Design Automation
Easier UVM for Functional
Featured Paper by John Aynsley

This paper describes an approach to using Accellera's UVM, the Universal Verification Methodology, for functional verification by mainstream users. The goal is to identify a minimal set of concepts sufficient for constrained random coverage-driven verification in order to ease the learning experience for engineers coming from a hardware design background who do not have extensive object-oriented programming skills. We describe coding guidelines to address the canonical structure of a UVM component and a UVM transaction, the construction of the UVM component hierarchy, the interface with the design-under-test, the use of UVM sequences, and the use of the factory and configuration mechanisms.
DVCon 2011
IEEE 1800-2009 SystemVerilog:
Featured Paper by Eduard Cerny, Surrendra Dudani & Dmitry Korchemny

The enhancements to the IEEE SystemVerilog language in the 2009 standard and in particular to the SystemVerilog Assertions (SVA) allow us to create much more useful and versatile checker libraries. They benefit primarily from the following features: checker encapsulation, let declarations, clock and disable inference, deferred assertions, elaboration error tasks, and enhanced property operators. In this paper we first identify the weaknesses of the current checker libraries by examining an example from the OVL library. We then provide a classification of checkers, and show how various forms of effective checker libraries can be created using the new constructs.
DVCon 2010
Making Floating-Point
Floating-point arithmetic becomes a widely used format in digital system design. For example, DSP applications often demand high precision while operating with large dynamic ranges. The IEEE 754™-2008 floating-point arithmetic standard fulfills this criterion but it might be extremely hard to comprehend and use. This document discusses challenges associated with debugging floating-point arithmetic designs and explains how to tackle them using the tools available with your floating-point aware IDE. Aldec, Inc.
Challenges and Requirements
Traditionally, area and timing have been the major issues faced by Integrated Circuit (IC) designers. Now, power has also emerged as a major concern for three reasons. First, low power is favored by numerous end‐applications, such as cellular phones, hand‐held gaming devices, and portable media players. Second, there is an increase in power density due to higher clock speeds and shrinking process geometries control. Last but not least, most system‐on‐chip (SoC) designs are composed of different blocks running multiple applications with varying power requirements.

Power format standards, like Common Power Format (CPF) and the Unified Power Format (UPF), are evolving to establish a power definition that can be used throughout the design, verification, and implementation stages. While development of a consistent power definition seems promising, it has direct implications on the complex verification issues that engineers face in debugging power‐aware designs and the types of solutions needed to address them.
SpringSoft, Inc.
Active-HDL 8.2
Active-HDL is an integrated easy-to-use FPGA Design and Simulation solution, providing a robust design creation tool suite, a high-performance mixed-language simulator and a multi-vendor FPGA flow manager that controls Simulation, Synthesis and Implementation for industry leading FPGA devices, such as Actel™, Altera®, Lattice®, Quicklogic®, Xilinx® and over 87 popular EDA tools, all-in-one common environment. ASICSoft, Inc.
Coverage Driven Verification
Featured Paper by Michael Baird

A coverage-driven verification plan defines verification goals in terms of functional coverage points. Each area of functionality required to be tested is described in terms of values, events and combinations of these. SystemVerilog provides covergroups as one way of obtaining coverage statistics to drive the testing activities.
DVCon 2010
Design Technologies for
Phased-array antennas are becoming popular for a variety of applications such as automotive driver assist systems, satellite communications, advanced radar, and more. The complexity and cost issues involved in developing communications systems based on phased-array antennas are being addressed through new functionalities in EDA software . This application note discusses these trends and presents recent advances in EDA tools for phased-array-based systems. National Instruments Corp.
Introducing Functional
Functional verification consumes a significant portion of the time and resources devoted to the typical design project. As chips continue to grow in size and complexity, designers must increasingly rely on a dedicated verification team to ensure that systems fully meet their specifications.

Verification engineers have at their disposal a set of dedicated tools and methodologies for verification automation and quality improvement. In spite of this, functional logic errors remain a significant cause of project delays and re‐spins. A key reason is that two important aspects of verification environment quality – the ability to propagate the effect of a bug to an observable point and the ability to observe the faulty effect and thus detect the bug – cannot be analyzed or measured. Existing methods, such as functional coverage and code coverage, largely ignore these two aspects, allowing functional errors to escape the verification process despite excellent coverage scores. Existing tools are simply unable to assess the overall quality of simulation‐based functional verification environments.

The Certitude Functional Qualification System from SpringSoft incorporates unique technology that measures and drives improvement of all aspects of functional verification quality for simulation‐based environments. This paper describes the fundamental aspects of functional verification that remain invisible to existing verification tools. It then introduces the origins and main concepts of a technology that allows this gap to be closed: Mutation‐based testing. It describes how SpringSoft uses this technology to deliver Certitude, the industry’s first functional qualification solution. Finally, it describes how
SpringSoft, Inc.
Verifying clock-domain
Featured Paper by Jean-François Vizier, Dennis Ramaekers & Zheng Hai Zhou

Usage of a GALS approach for a SoC implies the creation of several asynchronous paths. These paths can be critical for the system as some of them are part of the system bus. They require special attention during verification.
DVCon 2010
Ensuring the hardware testing results match RTL simulation results is the key to the strict verification guidelines of DO-254. This paper describes how to replay RTL simulation environment in the real hardware with the same flexibility, traceability and coverage ideal for DO-254 certification. Aldec
Simbeor Touchstone Analyzer
S-parameters quality assurance and macro-modeling automation with Touchstone Analyzer tool in Simbeor 2011 (Macro-Modeling) Simberian Inc.
FPGA Architectures Overview
In this short article we discuss modern FPGA architectures (SRAM-based, flash-based, antifuse-based) and their applications. 1-CORE Technologies
So There’s My Bug!
Featured Paper by Mike Floyd

Modern verification environments like those built with the Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) more closely resemble software applications than hardware applications. The challenge is that the teams building and debugging such environments are more often trained in hardware verification than software verification.
DVCon 2011
Verification Patterns
Featured Paper by Gordon Allan

Multiple parallel CPU or DSP cores are becoming commonplace in today's complex System-on-chip projects. They are often the right solution to provide architecture that can meet demanding performance expectations at an optimal process shrink / power consumption / price point.
DVCon 2011
From the Magician’s
Featured Paper by Amit Sharma, Abhisek Verma, Varun S & Anoop Kumar

In a few weeks, the Accellera VIP TSC will release the "1.0" version of the Universal Verification Methodology (UVM). This was the next step for the committee after it had released the UVM EA release early last year This has been quite significant because, the three major verification vendors have aligned on a single SystemVerilog Base-Class Library and Methodology for the first time.
DVCon 2011
A Virtual Reality Camera
Blueprint for the design of a virtual reality camera recording and compressing 16 full HD (1080p) simultaneously sharing a single DDR3 DRAM chip with 16 bits data bus. Both I and P frames are used thanks to the reference frame compression with Compressed Frame Store (CFS) technology. Ocean Logic Pty Ltd
Optimizing Area and Power
Featured Paper by Alan Carlin, Chris Komar & Anuj Singhania

Power consumption is a key differentiator for semiconductor products targeting the embedded market. The combination of system-level requirements and device-level characteristics presents a particular challenge for verifying the implementation of low power design features.
DVCon 2011
DFM Tips & Tricks II
Even a single sided a board can be viewed from above or below. Clearly marking all layers with right reading text will enable the board manufacturer to verify the proper orientation for your board. The more layers that are employed to make a board, the more important this becomes. Omni Graphics Ltd.
Is it time to switch
Six years ago, when OASIS was introduced, we published an article highlighting why it was a positive replacement for GDSII [1]. Since then, users have started adopting OASIS in their flows, with benefits and disadvantages. One of OASIS strengths is its flexibility (unlimited coordinate precision, unlimited number of layers, etc...). But this flexibility has a price in terms of memory consumption and computing time. A new standard, OASIS.MASK, is being introduced to address the requirements specific to photomask layout repre- sentation. This subset of OASIS (and as such fully OASIS compliant)introduces constraints that reflect the real-world limitations of mask manufacturing. As a result, OASIS.MASK interpretation and exploitation is more efficient and reliable. [1]P. Morey. Going from gdsii to oasis. EEtimes, December 2008. Xyalis
Ways of Bypassing CPU
Direct Memory Access (DMA) is one of several methods for coordinating the timing of data transfers between an input/output (I/O) device and the core processing unit or memory in a computer. DMA is one of the faster types of synchronization mechanisms, generally providing significant improvement over interrupts, in terms of both latency and throughput. An I/O device often operates at a much slower speed than the core. DMA allows the I/O device to access the memory directly, without using the core. DMA can lead to a signifi-cant improvement in performance because data movement is one of the most common operations performed in processing applications. There are several advantages of using DMA, rather than the one in which core does a memory to transfer operation and vice versa and this paper discuss all these advantages with various applications of DMA Controller. DMA is used in almost every complex system or subsystems , but its observed that teams either build the DMA controller from scratch for each project for specific application or take the existing DMAC available from elsewhere. Here in this article I have tried to discuss the architecture of DMAC that can be used with any kind of Bus, configuration (parallel, serial transfers), can be connected to any kind of ports, most importantly any kind of software assumptions can be implemented in the DMAC very easily. I call it Universal DMA Controller. MindTree Ltd
Advanced Scgematic-Driven
Circuit designs continue to get larger and more complicated. Custom layout, like most steps in the IC design flow, has become more tedious and time consuming. Designers are always looking for better tools to automate the process and help them become more productive. Schematic‐driven layout (SDL) is a design methodology that assists designers with the physical implementation of circuits, by providing automation and continuity between logic and layout. SDL relies on device generation technology for automation of the creation of physical layout from schematic elements. SpringSoft, Inc.
Functional coverage-driven
Featured Paper by Christoph Kuznik & Wolfgang M¨uller

SystemC is a versatile C++ based design and verification language, offering various mechanisms and constructs required for embedded systems modeling. Using the add-on SystemC Verification Library (SCV) elemental constrained-random stimuli techniques may be used for verification.
DVCon 2011
OVM & UVM Techniques
Featured Paper by Clifford E. Cummings & Tom Fitzpatrick

The Open Verification Methodology (OVM) and the new Universal Verification methodology (UVM) have a number of methods for terminating the run() phase at the completion of a test, usually via a combination of sequence completion, calls to the global stop_request mechanism and/or the recently-added objection mechanism. Many users also use built-in event and barrier constructs on a more application-specific basis to achieve their goals. This plethora of choices has led to some confusion among the user community about how best to manage this important aspect of the testbench.
DVCon 2011
Low Power Verification
Featured Paper by Jianfeng Liu, Mi-Sook Hong, Bong Hyun Lee, JungYun Choi, HyoSig Won, Kyu-Myung Choi, Harsha Vardhan & Aditya Kher

With the widespread adoption of advanced low power design and implementation techniques in SoC designs, the role of low power verification has been more critical than ever. Advanced low power design techniques, such as power gating, state retention, multi-VDD etc, require significant revisions of the verification methodologies, library infrastructure, advanced CAD tool support and serious engineering efforts to tackle the huge complexity in both implementation and verification.
DVCon 2010
Asynchronous Behaviors
Featured Paper by Doug Smith

Most digital designs inherently possess asynchronous behaviors of some kind. While the SystemVerilog assertion (SVA) language offers some asynchronous controls like disable iff, writing concurrent assertions that accurately describe asynchronous behavior is not so straightforward. SVA properties require a clocking event, making them innately synchronous.
DVCon 2010
SoC Architecture for
The high-definition video trend continues to drive new consumer products. These products are now moving to higher resolution, more sophisticated video compression, such as H.264, and improved image and scaling algorithms up to 120 Hz. This trend is affecting digital TVs, set-top-boxes, game consoles, and even mobile devices. There is clearly a new high quality, high definition (HQHD) segment forming which requires an exponential increase in SoC processing capability to support the more complex algorithms associated with HQHD. Sonics, Inc.
Addressing the verification
Featured Paper by Chris Schalick

The multi-GHz line rates enabled by SERDES introduce new design challenges in FPGAs, notably signal integrity issues which have given rise to a number of design tools and methodologies. But equally as demanding, if not more so, are the functional verification challenges associated with this complex technology.
DVCon 2011
Asynchronous Reset
The term asynchronous reset is a term used with digital design, but, it is often misunderstood. The type of reset is used in the specification of fields or slave interfaces in CSRSpec and the specification of signals in SystemRDL. There are two types of reset: synchronous and asynchronous. Even though the names may imply otherwise, both types have timing constraints with respect to a clock. Semifore, Inc.
SoC Bus Architecutre
SoC Bus Architecutre Palmchip Corp.
The Concurrent design
Am interesting experiment run in DAC this year to show benefits and drawbacks of different teams working in parallel. Duolog Technologies
Matching Circuit Optimization
Impedance matching is an essential part of antenna design. The input impedance of an antenna needs to be reasonably close to the amplifier impedance (e.g. 50 Ohm), otherwise the signal is reflected back to the amplifier and not radiated by the antenna. In many applications matching circuits consisting of discrete inductors and capacitors, or transmission lines are used to improve the impedance matching characteristics of the antenna. This white paper discusses the optimization of matching circuits especially to antenna applications. Although the design of matching circuits sounds simple, there are many practical considerations that need to be addressed. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
This is where EasyCODE customers will always find the latest versions and updates for their products. We invite customers with older versions and interested users to download and test these product versions, free of charge and with no obligation, so they can see for themselves on the basis of their own daily requirements just how beneficial EasyCODE can be. EASYCODE GmbH
The ROI of Hardware Configuration
Software teams have long realized the return on investment (ROI) of software configuration management (SCM) systems, which have been used by software teams for decades to manage development, improve collaboration, and coordinate releases. In fact, SCM systems have become such an integral part of a software development environment that practically no significant software project is even started without a SCM methodology in place. Over the last decade, hardware design teams have encountered the same market forces as software designers: increased competition due to globalization, mandating the use of the best available engineers irrespective of location; an exponential increase in design complexity; and shrinking market windows. The result has been larger teams of engineers spread across multiple sites, managing complex flows, and sharing a large volume of constantly changing data. They need hardware configuration management (HCM) systems. Cliosoft, Inc.
Achieving First-Time
Featured Paper by Kjeld Svendsen, Chuck Seeley & Erich Marschner

Minimizing power consumption has become a critical requirement in today’s designs. Active power management required to minimize power consumption creates additional challenges for functional verification. IEEE Std 1801™-2009 [1] defines the Unified Power Format (UPF), which enables visualization and early verification of the behavior of a design under active power management during RTL simulation.
DVCon 2011
Low Power Static Verification-
Featured Paper by Kaustav Guha , Ankush Bagotra & Neha Bajaj

UPF2.0 [1], with its ability to define power states and corruption semantics on them, has made low power verification flows powerful. This powerful flow provides more flexibility to a verification engineer to define sophisticated assertions, enabling them to isolate more low power issues in the design.
DVCon 2011
Over the past decade, Phase-Locked Loops (PLLs) have become an integral part of the modern ASIC design. PLLs provide the clocks that sequence the operation of the various blocks on an ASIC chip as well as synthesize their communications. There are various types of PLLs targeting specific applications. Clock generator PLLs are capable of large frequency multiplication. True Circuits, Inc.
TSMC Corporate Video
SystemVerilog FrameWorksTM
Featured Paper by Dr. Ambar Sarkar

Scoreboarding is a critical function required of a verification environment. While much progress has been made in standardizing verification environments with the release of Accellera’s Universal Verification Methodology(UVM)[1], no standardized scoreboarding implementation is currently available.
DVCon 2011
Off To The Races With
Featured Paper by Hans van der Schoot, Anoop Saha, Ankit Garg & Krishnamurthy Suresh

A methodology is presented for writing modern SystemVerilog testbenches that can be used not only for software simulation, but especially for hardware-assisted acceleration. The methodology is founded on a transaction-based co-emulation approach and enables truly single source, fully IEEE 1800 SystemVerilog compliant, transaction-level testbenches that work for both simulation and acceleration.
DVCon 2011
Exhaustive Equivalence
Featured Paper by Baosheng Wang, Brian McMinn, Borhan Roohipour, Ashok Venkatachar, Arun Chandra, Richard Bartolotti & Lerzan Celikkanat

There is an ever-increasing demand for higher performance microprocessors within a given power budget. Such a demand forces design choices – that were once seen only in high-speed custom blocks – to spread throughout the microprocessor core.
DVCon 2011
Functional Coverage –
Featured Paper by Alan Fitch & Doug Smith

This paper investigates the implementation of functional coverage in languages such as VHDL and SystemC®1, when for some reason the use of SystemVerilog is not possible.
DVCon 2010
The Aerospace and Defense industry requires high-reliability electronics that operate in harsh conditions involving extremes in temperature, shock, vibration, moisture, dust, dirt and more. Aerospace and Defense Engineers face a long list of challenges designing and verifying this mission critical technology, on time and to budget. Requirements for size, performance, and power are exasperated by compliance with rigorous safety and reliability standards – notably the DO-254 standard for assuring quality and safety for airborne electronic hardware. Blue Pearl Software’s Visual Verification Suite is a RTL verification solution that accelerates the development of high-reliability RTL for FPGAs and ASICs to ensure safe and robust avionics equipment.
An Innovative Methodology
Featured Paper by Fabian Delguste, Adiel Khan, Abhisek Verma & Graeme Nunn

The traditional verification approach used in the analog world still lacks some key aspects that have been efficiently deployed to digital verification for years.
DVCon 2011
Stimulating Scenarios
Featured Paper by JL Gray & Scott Roland

The Open Verification Methodology (OVM) and Verification Methodology Manual (VMM) libraries used to augment the capabilities of the SystemVerilog language introduce advanced stimulus generation capabilities suitable for designing large testbenches and verification IP in the form of sequences and scenarios. However, many verification teams struggle to fully utilize these techniques, and end up with testbenches that either only support directed tests, or support randomization while being difficult to maintain and enhance. In this paper, advanced stimulus generation concepts, architecture, and motivation will be described. Tips for a successful stimulus generation implementation will be provided, and solutions from the VMM and OVM libraries will be compared and contrasted.
DVCon 2010
Effects of Abstraction
Featured Paper by Josh Rensch & Jesse Prusi

A multi-layer protocol is a lower-layer protocol wrapped in a higherlayer protocol, for example IP over Ethernet. Multi-layer protocols are challenging because of the linkage between the layers required for stimulus generation for a design under test (DUT) that is aware of and processes both layers simultaneously. This paper will discuss the challenges of verifying a design that supports multi-layer protocols and the use of Open Verification Methodology (OVM) transaction objects to overcome them, particularly in the creation of stimuli.
DVCon 2010
Sigasi 2.0 Starter Edition
Sigasi 2.0 Starter Edition is a freemium tool for VHDL design entry, code comprehension and design reuse. It is designed to make existing text editors like Emacs and VIM obsolete. Full functionality of Sigasi 2.0 Pro is available for free, for small projects. Sigasi
Design of a Stealth Antenna
Featured Paper by F. De Vita, S. Di Marco, F. Costa & P. Turchi

This paper will describe some applications of COMSOL Multiphysics to the analysis of Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) structures. Particular attention will be devoted to the possibility of designing a stealthy antenna using the FSS structure. In fact, since it possesses a dual filter concept of frequency and polarization for electromagnetic wave, the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of the antenna is reduced.
Metric Driven Verification
Featured Paper by Neyaz Khan, Yaron Kashai & Hao Fang

Functional verification has long been a major concern in digital design. Over the years, the huge investment in verification spurred the development of tools and methodologies for systematic and costeffective functional verification.
DVCon 2011
Featured Paper by Rex Chen, Bindesh Patel & Jun Zhao

SystemVerilog provides a compelling advantage in addressing the verification complexity challenge ─ not simply as a new language for describing complex structures, but as a platform for driving a more efficient, realistic test of the design. It is no surprise then that the adoption of the language for verification purposes has been rapid.
DVCon 2011
Advanced Testbench Configuration
Featured Paper by Mark Glasser

Building robust, reusable testbenches means the testbench elements must be configurable. At its essence, configuring a testbench is a matter of populating a database with name/value pairs and providing a means for testbench objects to access that database.
DVCon 2011
From Analog to DSP
With an increasing number of companies designing DSP into their products, the divisions between different specialities are falling away. Engineers and designers now have to have some knowledge of analog and digital designing, software engineering and mathematics as well. Omni Graphics Ltd.
Astra Microwave Speeds
AMPL chose NI AWR Design Environment because it is a powerful tool for MMIC design and at the same time reduces design cycle time. It has an intuitive user interface and is extremely user friendly when compared to other EDA software tools. Productivity, ease of use, simulation speed, availability of models, and innovative technologies are all key benefits of the software for AMPL. The most positive feature of NI AWR software cited by AMPL was an improved MMIC design flow that delivered a reduction in simulation time yet better accuracy with simulation results. AWR Corporation
EDWin XP 1.71
EDWinXP is a Total Integrated EDA/ECAD Software package of seamlessly integrated, task oriented modules covering all stages of the electronic circuit design process - from capturing the idea of a circuit in the form of schematic diagram to generate a full set of documentation for manufacturing and assembling of PCBs". It is a complete suite that has Schematics Editor, PCB Layout Editor, Fabrication manager, Library manager and many more Visionics
Command Line Debug Using
Featured Paper by Mark Peryer

The mainstream use case for the UVM is to create a verification environment that supports the running of multiple test cases which run sequence based stimulus and use automatic checking and coverage mechanisms to achieve closure on a verification plan. However, there is another important use case which is not so well addressed and that is the interactive debug of hardware and test bench bugs.
DVCon 2011
Parallel Computing for
Featured Paper by Amit Sharma , Shekhar Basavanna & Srinivasan Venkataramanan

In the functional verification of complex chips, there are several phases where the requirements for the memory and runtime are far beyond the simple, single compute-server capabilities. With multi-core processors being ubiquitous nowadays, EDA tools have emerged over the last several years to provide solutions leveraging these multiple cores through parallel computing to push the limits of memory and runtime limitations of erstwhile simple computer infrastructure.
DVCon 2011
GoldMine: Automatic Assertion
Featured Paper by David Sheridan, Lingyi Liu, & Shobha Vasudevan

We present GOLDMINE, a methodology for generating assertions automatically. Our method involves a combination of data mining and static analysis of the Register Transfer Level (RTL) design. The RTL design is first simulated to generate data about the design’s dynamic behavior.
DVCon 2011
SystemVerilog Meets C++:
Featured Paper by John Aynsley

The OVM and VMM methodologies each provide powerful, flexible and intuitive frameworks for the construction of SystemVerilog verification environments. However, many SystemVerilog users also have models written in C, C++, or sometimes SystemC. Furthermore, the emergence of the SystemC TLM-1 and TLM-2.0 transaction-level modeling standards is having an impact on communication styles within SystemVerlog verification environments. This paper offers practical guidance on using the SystemVerilog Direct Programming Interface (DPI) to integrate existing C, C++ and SystemC code into an OVM- or VMM-based SystemVerilog testbench without jeopardizing portability from one simulator to another. This is achieved by presenting a set of simple, robust guidelines for creating portable DPI code.
DVCon 2010
Customer Video: High
Baseball-playing robot system demonstrates perfect and quick pitching and batting technology. dSPACE GmbH
Remcom’s XFdtd and
Once modeling the antenna array is completed using XFdtd, the sample far-zone patterns can be sent to Wireless InSite to analyze in-situ performance. Remcom
Mixed Signal Assertion-Based
Featured Paper by Prabal Bhattacharya, Don O’Riordan & Walter Hartong

The increase in mixed-signal content - both in size and complexity – of an SoC demands a change in the existing mixed-signal verification techniques. Although some ad-hoc practices exist today for analog or mixed-signal verification, none of these methods scale to the complex circuit conditions that analog and mixed-signal verification tasks encounter.
DVCon 2011
Linking Multiple Verification
Featured Paper by Jing Li, Nantian Qian & Yuan Lu

More features and more bandwidth capability enabled in our new generation switch chips create a daunting task for functional verification. Our verification methodology includes a top level test environment and many block level tests for key blocks. Both rely on random stimulus to achieve significant coverage.
DVCon 2011
Panning for Gold in RTL
Featured Paper by Rich Edelman, Raghu Ardeishar, Akshay Sarup & Suman Kasam

This paper explains multi-level transaction level monitoring, scoreboarding and coverage collection for existing RTL designs. By applying the ideas in this paper, the reader will understand how to achieve higher level verification on reused or lower level design components.
DVCon 2011
Traversing the Interconnect:
Featured Paper by Prashanth Srinivasa & Mathew Roy

There are several challenges in verifying a complex SoC (System on Chip) on time, like frequent specification changes, which include architectural and protocol changes that impact both verification effort and the delivery schedules. As an example, a SoC of ~140 M gates currently we are working on consists of large sub-chip components having hierarchical interconnects, needs to be comprehensively verified.
DVCon 2011
Where OOP Falls Short
Featured Paper by Matan Vax

Functional verification requires, among other things, dedicated programming constructs and mechanisms. Such are accessible to a wide community of verification engineers today more than in the past thanks to the SystemVerilog language. Along with many verification specific constructs it features object-oriented programming (OOP) framework. OOP has been extremely successful in facilitating reuse in many software application domains.
DVCon 2010
Efficient model-based
This paper aims at presenting a new model-based flow targeting analog/RF circuits sizing with significant improvements of parametric yield at a very early stage in the design phase. The flow is then applied on a ST Microelectronics [2] LDO regulator design. In a first step, the regulator is modeled. In the second one, the design is optimally sized. The process parameters are then modeled, and finally the sensitivity of the design to the process is analyzed. InfiniScale®
Controlling Signal Timing
Standard reference sources (Motorola's MECL System Design Handbook, for example1.7.1) give several formulas that relate to the propagation delay of a signal along a trace on a circuit board. These formulas have been combined and summarized in Figure 1.7a. The first part of the formula provides the basic propagation time under unloaded conditions. In that formula, a = 1 and b = 0 for Stripline configurations and a = .475 and b = .67 for Microstrip. Omni Graphics Ltd.
Reliability is a major criterion for integrated circuits (ICs) in safety critical applications, such as automotive, medical, or aviation electronics. A particular effect that contributes to wear-out is device (i.e. transistor) degradation. Its impact on the circuit behavior can be verified by circuit level aging simulations, which are offered by various EDA vendors. However, reasonable results can only be achieved with accurate and efficient device (i.e. transistor) degradation models. This white paper discusses the state of the art and points out opportunities for improvements. Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits
New Approach to Accelerating
Despite many efforts to automate analog design and layout, these tasks remain primarily a full custom process, ; with the result that analog is occupying a larger and larger portion of the total design cycle time. Efforts to automate analog design have not been successful in the marketplace because the tools have not been able to equal the quality levels of full custom design, are complex to set up and use, and are expensive. Tanner EDA’s new tool forgoes full automation in favor of accelerating the layout process by generating key analog design primitives, such as current mirrors and differential pairs. These primitives are often the most time-consuming aspect of layout and indeed the parts that are critical to the functionality of the silicon. The new tool applies matching techniques to address common processing artifacts, produces the optimal solution for parasitics and silicon area, and creates devices optimized for high yield. Tanner EDA
Accelerating Innovation
Smaller devices with more memory and features, environmental constraints, global sourcing, increased speed and decreased cost—these demands pose significant challenges for the electronics manufacturers who, arguably, have the shortest product lifecycle of any industry. Delivering the latest, greatest, smallest and next "must have" tech toy requires design and engineering solutions that will help the industry evaluate and improve product performance on the fly. Dassault Systèmes
Global Unichip Corporation
Maximizing integrated circuit design and production efficiency with ENOVIA V6

Challenge GUC needed to improve time-tomarket, project schedule control, and quality assurance in response to globalization in the competitive integrated circuit design market.
Dassault Systèmes
Interoperable IP Delivery
This paper describes the theoretical background, current status and future challenges facing interoperable cryptosystem for safe delivery of Intellectual Property (IP) to be used in VHDL and SystemVerilog design and verification. The system must be reliable, and interoperable, i.e. enable safe use of IP source in a variety of tools. IEEE P1735 Working Group currently develops proposed standard describing such a cryptosystem. Aldec
Plugging the Holes: SystemC
Featured Paper by Pankaj Singh & Gaurav Kumar Verma

Technology advances allows for the creation of larger and more designs. This poses new challenges, including efforts to balance verification completeness with minimization of overall verification effort and cycle time.
DVCon 2011
Transaction-Based Acceleration—Strong
Featured Paper by Chandrasekhar Poorna, Varun Gupta & Raj Mathur

Register transfer level (RTL) simulation run times are severely impacted by the verification requirements of today’s complex IC designs. Due to fierce market demands of increased functionality, the need to serve multiple applications with the same core design, and shrinking time-to-market windows, it has become increasingly challenging to complete the verification plan on time.
DVCon 2011
Experiencing Checkers
Featured Paper by Ben Cohen, Srinivasan Venkataramanan & Lisa Piper

The checker construct is a new feature defined in IEEE 1800-2009; it is intended to facilitate the definition and usage of libraries of assertions and to delineate verification code from RTL. In this paper, we describe our experience in using checkers for the evaluation of a cache controller design. The goal was to evaluate how easy it is to define and then utilize the checkers in a variety of configurations. Checkers were defined to include static concurrent assertions, procedural concurrent assertions, immediate and deferred immediate assertions. The checkers were then instantiated statically and procedurally in the design module. We also experimented with where the checkers are defined and how formal arguments were used. Simulation was used to confirm our results, with both pass and fail assertion results expected.
DVCon 2010
Source Control…$100,
Featured Paper by Jeffrey Wren

Release management is critical to the success of every hardware development environment. However, it is typically the most overlooked and underestimated task in most development teams. In this ever increasing complex world of ASIC and FPGA designs, the ability to manage the changes made by both design and verification members in a sufficient way is needed where one can quickly determine faulty RTL, synthesis, schematic, and layout updates. This paper will address the drawbacks of a typical release flow, and will put forth a proven 5 step process a design team can implement which can be then be automated. . It also presents a case study, where a free open source software tool ReleaseWorks® [3] was successfully used to automate this 5 step process.
DVCon 2010
Whats Behind Digital
Like any new technique that is introduced in the market, digital power control must first prove that it offers important advantages over state-of-the-art analog techniques. In this vein, the first and foremost issue to be addressed is the price, and the secondary considerations are converter size, performance and efficiency. This article covers these issues and also discusses digital power control from a broad standpoint. ZMDI
Easy Evaluation of Streamer
Featured Paper by G. Eriksson

An easily implemented method is devised, where analytical criteria for the occurrence of streamer discharges in strong electric fields are evaluated. This is highly useful when designing high voltage power transmission systems and components where the insulation is provided by a gas, e.g. air or SF6.
Thermal Modeling of Heat Sinks
Heat sinks transfer generated heat in an electric system away from the active and passive electronic components and toward the ambient environment. This article describes thermal management via temperature distribution and heat flow simulation using CST MPHYSICS® STUDIO. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
ELDIS Pardubice Develops
The designer chose NI AWR Design Environment because the software offers good availability of microwave circuit libraries and strong and efficient optimization. With the VBA macro, the complex feeding network was analyzed more quickly. In addition, the designer noted that NI AWR software has good documentation and a collection of “how-to” videos and application notes. AWR Corporation
University of Peradeniya
Wideband couplers have many practical applications at microwave frequencies. If realized in an inhomogeneous medium such as microstrip, these couplers yield poor directivity, which results in severe performance degradation. One of the major reasons for poor directivity is the mismatch in the odd and even mode phase velocities, along the coupled lines. Several methods have been suggested for compensating for the phase velocity mismatch, but these are limited to narrow bandwidths. The undergraduate design project described in this success story investigates the design and simulation of a unique wideband coupler that improves directivity by increasing the number of stages of the coupled line coupler, thus resulting in a multistage coupler, which improves bandwidth performance and, with optimally positioned capacitances, delivers improved directivity and phase compensation. AWR Corporation
New Approach to Accelerating
Despite many efforts to automate analog design and layout, these tasks remain primarily a full custom process, ; with the result that analog is occupying a larger and larger portion of the total design cycle time. Efforts to automate analog design have not been successful in the marketplace because the tools have not been able to equal the quality levels of full custom design, are complex to set up and use, and are expensive. Tanner EDA’s new tool forgoes full automation in favor of accelerating the layout process by generating key analog design primitives, such as current mirrors and differential pairs. These primitives are often the most time-consuming aspect of layout and indeed the parts that are critical to the functionality of the silicon. The new tool applies matching techniques to address common processing artifacts, produces the optimal solution for parasitics and silicon area, and creates devices optimized for high yield. This paper outlines explains how. Tanner EDA
Assertion Based Self-checking
Featured Paper by Lakshmanan Balasubramanian , Pooja Sundar & Timothy W Fischer

In this paper we propose a methodology to simplify the verification process by creating a library of small, generic Verilog-A (VA) based assertion modules that can be connected together to form more complex checkers for any circuit. This serves as a good infrastructure for designers to easily build their own checkers. A Cadence infrastructure with schematic elements like symbols and forms are built to make the use of the library of assertions for a module level verification more intuitive and user friendly.
DVCon 2011
Pay Me Now or Pay Me Later
Featured Paper by Paul Graykowski & Andrew Piziali

In order to successfully verify a design, the scope and details of the verification problem must be quantified and measured. These are written during verification planning as the feature set of the design. Each feature has associated attributes that may be quantified with selected values and structurally arranged to reflect its nature, thereby defining its associated coverage model.
DVCon 2011
An Automatic Visual System
Featured Paper by George F. Frazier, Neeti Bhatnagar , Woody Larue & Vincent Motel

Performance analysis is an important aspect of TLM 2.0-based system design. While case-specific performance analysis can be hand coded into any model, it is possible to compute useful performance analysis metrics in a generic fashion for TLM 2.0 models.
DVCon 2011
Tweak-Free Reuse Using OVM
Featured Paper by Sharon Rosenberg

Most companies today aim to leverage existing design and verification IP as part of the design and verification flow. Internal IP is developed, tuned and reused over time to become a major company asset and can be a competitive differentiator. A key requirement for developing a central verification IP (VIP) repository is to avoid the need to understand the implementation details or modify existing IP for use in follow-on projects. In working with many large and small corporations, we find that while many companies strive for such cross-company (and cross-project) component reuse, only a few manage to achieve this goal. This document describes the recurring practices that allow companies to excel in productivity and reuse.
DVCon 2010
Using Ada with Test Driven
This whitepaper explains how Test Automation tools can be used with Ada to support Test Driven Development (TDD) in an Agile-programming environment. This paper assumes some basic familiarity with Test Automation products. Vector Software, Inc.
UML and Embedded
UML and Embedded Willert Software Tools GmbH
A Multiphysics Approach
The magnetrons used in microwave ovens operate on the same frequency band as Wi-Fi equipment, and the radiation they release can interfere with the operation of wireless networks. This paper presents a multiphysics simulation of a magnetron using CST STUDIO SUITE®, with the aim of testing the electrical, magnetic, thermal and mechanical characteristics of a low-interference magnetron design. The simulation results are then compared to measurements made experimentally, and the two sets of results are shown to be in good agreement. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
BOSCH : An integrated
"You could say the library is the brain of our development. All the information our developers need for their work is stored centrally, so they know, for instance, whether they can use a component for a new development or when it has been discontinued” Lutz Napiwotzky, responsible for Engineering Applications Corporate IT at Bosch. When the Bosch Group’s Automotive Technology Division, one of the world's leading suppliers to the automotive industry, analyzed their development processes, they quickly identified areas for improvement, including consistent data management. Each division structured data differently and stored it in different systems. As a result, tasks like tracing component use were inefficient and sometimes impossible. After implementing Dassault Systèmes’ 3DEXPERIENCE platform Bosch engineers understand exactly which components were installed in which devices, including all configuration and material information. In particular, the component library structuring and versioning capabilities bring significant value to the Stuttgart-based company. Dassault Systèmes
NI AWR Design Environment
NI AWR Microwave Office provides an easy to use interface and built-in process definition tools that allowed the Nanjing University of Science and Technology School (NUST) to efficiently construct the models for vertically multilayer interdigital capacitors and multilayer spiral inductors for our LTCC design. AXIEM enabled us to easily tune, sweep, and optimize the value of the capacitors and inductors. AWR Corporation
DesignWare SATA AHCI
This application note describes how to configure and connect the DesignWare® SATA AHCI IP core to the Synopsys PHY in a multi-port AHB-based configuration, and provides an analysis of the expected throughput on each port based on assumed system parameters. The expectation is that a user should be able to take this example and insert actual system parameters to come up with a performance estimate. We will look briefly at the architecture of the core to enable a better understanding of the subsequent sections describing the configuration and performance calculations of the core. Also, note that while this document only discusses the performance of an AHB-based configuration, the option to select an AXI-based configuration will be available in the near future. Due to the nature of the AXI-bus, which allows for overlapping transfers, we expect an increase in the performance of a multi-port configuration. Synopsys Inc.
Fundamentals of NAND
This white paper presents very important information for managers, engineers, and system architects who are working with NAND Flash memory. Eureka technology
Getting Rid of False
Featured Paper by Matthieu Parizy & Hiroaki Iwashita

The recent years have seen LSI design complexity continuing to rise sharply. This phenomenon translates itself in the design specifications as they include non-deterministic parts more and more frequently. For example, in cases of designs using packets for data transmission, packets transfer order is determined by precise rules. But, depending on the timing of the transactions, the final order might be hard to predict.
DVCon 2011
Testbench Configuration Mantra
Featured Paper by Stephen D’Onofrio

All testbenches, even the simplest testbenches, need some kind of configuration knobs (sometimes called configuration fields or configuration parameters) that are used to control setting up some feature in the verification environment. Ideally, the environment also includes some kind of mechanism that allows test writers a way to override a configuration knob’s default value. Configuration knobs are typically setup in the testbench during the building phase and directly used for DUT (Design Under Test) initialization. There are various categories of configuration knobs including (but not limited to) testbench topology knobs, simulation specific knobs, verification component knobs, and testbench specific knobs.
DVCon 2010
65nm Migration
33 modules including RF blocks with inductors. IN2FAB Technology
Simulation of Magnetic
Featured Paper by A. Hazra & G. Konar

Wind energy is one of the fastest growing renewable energy sources for electricity generation over the past decade. The offshore installation of large-scale wind farms draws huge attention because of better wind profile. Direct drive synchronous wind turbine generators are now a global demand for light weight, compact, large scale wind turbine generators. Among various approaches in designing direct drive superconducting wind turbine generators, a comparatively new design (Figure 1) having both axial and radial air gaps between stator and superconducting rotor winding is selected for simulation work. It has the advantages of uniform stress and magnetic force around the circular coil. Elimination of gear box leads to light weight of the wind turbine generator. This paper deals with the simulation of magnetic flux distribution of stator and rotor coil of the same using the sliding mesh tool of COMSOL Multiphysics.
Evaluation of Package
EDA simulation software streamlines the development of digital and analog circuits from defi nition of concept and estimation of required hardware and software characteristics to the design of system components like printed circuit boards (PCBs), chips, and packages. In particular, simulation technology for high-frequency (HF) and high-speed electronics enables designers to characterize parasitic effects at a wide range of frequencies and accurately predict performance. High-quality models are required and the better the model, the more likely that the functionality of the end product will correlate with simulated performance. National Instruments Corp.
Graphical Embedded System
The Flight Computing System of a Novel Nano-Satellite takes advantage of the NI LabVIEWTM Embedded Module & the Low Power Mixed Signal ADI Blackfin® Target ZMobile to Achieve Precise Spacecraft Attitude Determination & Control. The spacecraft “PurdueSat”, classified as a nano-satellite, is currently being developed by the School of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Purdue University. Schmid Engineering AG
Invarian Addresses Sign-Off
IC designers responsible for the physical implementation of the design face a huge problem of design sign-off analysis. Today, they need to use different tools to verify the various design aspects, such as timing, power, voltage drops, and chip temperature. The problem is that each of these analyses needs the results of all the other analyses. Therefore, typically, these tools are run sequentially in a flow, so that the results of one tool can feed the next tool. Invarian
Cirexx Presentation
Company Presentation Cirexx Corporation
A Guided Tour of SimCluster
SimCluster is an innovative parallel, distributed simulation environment that provides a scalable, open, and flexible solution to increase RTL and gate-level simulation performance and capacity by 300-700% or more. SimCluster supports Verilog and VHDL design methodologies and the most popular simulators (NCVerilog, Verilog-XL, VCS, and ModelSim), hardware accelerators, and emulators. Avery Design Systems, Inc
Facilitating Unreachable
Code coverage is a popular method to find design bugs and verification loopholes. However, once a piece of code is determined to be unreachable, diagnosing the cause of the problem can be challenging: since the code is unreachable, no counterexample can be returned for debugging. Therefore, engineers need to analyze the legality of nonexistent execution paths, which can be difficult. To address such a problem, we analyzed the cause of unreachability in several industrial designs and proposed a diagnosis technique that can explain the cause of unreachability. In addition, our method provides suggestions on how to solve the unreachability problem, which can further facilitate debugging. Our experimental results show that this technique can greatly reduce an engineer’s effort in analyzing unreachable code. Avery Design Systems, Inc
Consistent SystemC and
Featured Paper by Rainer Findenig, Thomas Leitner & Vokan Esen, Wolfgang Ecker

In today’s hardware development, SystemC code is widely used for virtual prototyping, where an abstract system model is used to do an early exploration of the hardware implementation as well as software development. The synthesis tools, on the other hand, conventionally still rely on VHDL as the entry language.
DVCon 2011
Power-aware IP and Mixed-Signal
Featured Paper by Luke Lang

Power intent verification, whose complexity increases exponentially with the number of power domains and the number of different power states those domains can assume, is further complicated by the need to integrate digital and mixed-signal IP blocks. Digital IP blocks may be complex enough to have their own advanced low power techniques implemented internally.
DVCon 2011
Low-Power Verification
Featured Paper by John Decker

Low power has quickly become a primary requirement for a large percentage of designs. As companies rush forward to incorporate the latest low power features, they are faced with the growing challenge of how to verify these complex structures and ensure successful silicon.
DVCon 2011
Comparison of TLM2-Quantum
Featured Paper by Wolfgang Ecker, Volkan Esen, Rainer Findenig, Thomas Leitner & Michael Velten

Virtual Prototypes (VPs) based on Transaction Level Modeling (TLM) have become a de-facto standard in today’s SoC design, enabling early SW development. However, due to the growing complexity of SoC architectures, full system simulations (HW+SW) become a bottleneck especially if a high timing accuracy is required.
DVCon 2011
Stepwise Refinement and
Featured Paper by Ashok B. Mehta, Mark Glasser, Shabtay Matalon & Dan Gardner

For ultra-scale SoC designs that are now commonplace, it has become impractical to use only traditional RTL design and verification techniques. ESL methodologies, used for designing at levels of abstraction above RTL, are instrumental in determining design feasibility, honing requirements, and experimenting with architectures and algorithms to meet functionality as well as performance and power requirements.
DVCon 2011
Combining Simulation
Featured Paper by Aneet Agarwal & Gaurav Gupta

With design complexity growing by the day, the need for verification technologies that can complement simulation based verification is also gaining momentum. Formal verification has clearly emerged as one of the strong candidates. In a typical simulation based verification cycle, the number of bugs reported grows exponentially in the beginning, but this number shrinks rapidly thereafter in the cycle and what remains is a few difficult to find corner case issues.
DVCon 2010
Understanding the Low
Featured Paper by Dr. Gary Delp, Erich Marschner & Kenneth Bakalar

We define four abstract models in common use today for electronic design—electrical, digital gate, digital RTL, and transactional—and discuss the relationships among them. The new low-power model described by IEEE Std 1801-2009 UPF is introduced, and its relationship to the other signal-level models for digital and analog design is defined.
DVCon 2010
Efficient Simulation
Featured Paper by Chao Yan & Kevin Jones

With the increasing complexity of systems, the current simulation based circuit verification used in industry are becoming more expensive while providing low coverage. The paper presents a systematic way to reduce the verification time by optimizing the execution order of test cases. Compared with the default order maintained by engineers, the optimal order can achieve a high coverage in a short time as it guarantees running the important test case first.
DVCon 2010
Timing efficient cell
Pin multiplexing is a common practice applied in order to save large number of pads in an SoC. This reduces the Die area of the chip but impose a number of limitations, like requirement of dedicated, complex pin muxing circuit. Traditionally there are three major types of pin multiplexing circuits which are in use; arbiter based , resgister configurable and priority muxing . Out of these , priority muxing simplifies the muxing strategy as it muxes the various functions together on the basis of timing criticality , also it utilizes the IP’s in built select signal . In this paper we propose a novel MUX cell design which can be applied at the places where priority muxing is used. This muxing strategy enables muxing of functions with equal timing criticality together at one single pad even with the priority intact. Which in turn limits the number of high driving pads in SoCs hence saving power and area both? The proposed circuitry is technology independent and also saves area . This circuit is applied in a SoC at 90nm technology by replacing traditional priority based pin muxing and almost 72% area saving and significant interface frequency increase is achieved Freescale Semiconductor
Analogue Behavioural
The goal of this presentation is to illustrate the requirements for automated analogue behaviour modelling techniques from the viewpoint of the designer. In the first paragraph the reasons for using behavioural models are explained. Next the desired features of such techniques are given in general terms. Finally some of the available methods and tools are presented as an example. EDXACT SA
Measuring Real-Time Performance
Thread-Metric is a free benchmark suite designed to measure the performance of an RTOS. It can be adapted to measure any RTOS, enabling performance comparison to assist in RTOS evaluation and selection. Links below provide a presentation that describes the Thread-Metric suite, and the code itself. Express Logic, Inc
Antenna Design
IMST offers a wide range of antennas from standard designs to tailored solutions for many different applications. IMST GmbH
The thresholding inverters are the key to the TIQ based ADC circuit. For an n-bit ADC, total (2**n)-1 TIQ comparators are required. Each of the (2**n)-1 TIQ comparators are different from each other. We use special layout technique to generate (2**n)-1 unique comparators, the Systematic Parameter Variation (SPV) technique. The SPV technique is based on the spice parameter provided by the chip fabrication vendor. Micro Magic, Inc.
Improving Design Time
PCB designers have relied on CircuitSpace to expedite their design process for several years. One such customer is Troy Snow, Senior PCB Designer with an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) located in Austin, Texas, who has been using this software throughout his career. EMA Design Automation
Considerations for Bulk
A group of leading semiconductor companies have developed a roadmap for leveraging CMOS designs intended for manufacturing on bulk silicon to fabricate ICs on fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) substrates with ultra-thin buried oxide layers, producing chips with improved performance and lower operating power. This white paper shows that porting circuits from bulk silicon to FD-SOI can be very direct, depending on the FD-SOI technology used by a specific chipmaker. SOI Industry Consortium
A full-wave three dimensional (3D)electromagnetic simulator can be used to simulate and visualize the propagation of electromagnetic fields across PCBs. This article will describe how CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® can be successfully used to characterize the response of high-speed channels, and how typical SI results such as S-parameters, Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) data and eye diagrams can be numerically calculated to predict the response of a channel. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
Understanding and Reducing
Achieving the least possible delay in a video capture, streaming, and display system can be surprisingly affected by the specific H.264 encoder near the beginning of that flow. Read this white paper to learn more about what determines latency, and how to pick the best encoder for achieving low latency in your systems. CAST
Efficient model-based
State of the art

The InfiniScale flow
- Modeling
- Sizing
- Parametrical Yield optimization
ARM On-Chip Debug Interfaces
When selecting and evaluating debug interfaces and tools for ARM microcontrollers many aspects have to be regarded. This article provides some guidance what should be taken into consideration. More detailed information is available from ARM or the according chip manufacturer. iSYSTEM AG
PCB Layout
What is PCB Layout? * PCB Layout is the process of creating the artwork necessary to manufacture a printed circuit board *PCB board design defines the electrical pathways between components 911EDA, Inc.
High-Level Synthesis
Featured Paper by Thomas Bollaert

In this paper, we will describe how a complete graphics processing pipeline was implemented using an HLS methodology. As with most real-life applications, this design consists of a complex mix of control logic, datapaths, interfaces, and hierarchy.
DVCon 2011
Plan & Metric Driven
Featured Paper by Gregg Sarkinen

This paper discusses the experience of using plan and metric-driven verification on a recent mixed-signal integrated-circuit (IC) prototype at Medtronic. The design consists of digital and analog circuits which traditionally have been verified with unique tools and methodologies to perform simulation tests.
DVCon 2011
CompMon: Ensuring Rigorous
Featured Paper by Robert Adler, Sava Krstic , Erik Seligman & Jin Yang

Intel defines numerous forms of reusable IP that are leveraged by many projects across different divisions and business groups. In order to ensure the successful reuse in the various system topologies demanded by Intel design teams, compliance of the IP to the specification is critical.
DVCon 2011
Formal Methods to Verify
Featured Paper by Kesava R. Talupuru

With shrinking process geometries, static and dynamic power are increasing rapidly, forcing designers to use a variety of implementation techniques to control power. MIPS Technologies processor cores designed for low power applications use multiple power modes and employ a Power Manager to ensure correct transitions between these modes. This paper focuses on the verification of the Power Manager in the context of the – MIPS 1004K™ Coherent Processing System (CPS), in which various software and hardware events can control switching of power states. Without exhaustive verification of the Power Manager, the power management functionality of the design cannot be guaranteed. This paper discusses on how we successfully used formal methods to verify the Power Manager.
DVCon 2010
Reusing Testbench Components
Featured Paper by Ritero Chi & Xiaolin Chen

Simulation and formal verification traditionally have been treated as completely separate processes. Simulation is procedural and dynamic in nature, highly efficient at testing basic functionalities, but can be difficult to control to target corner case scenarios. Formal is static in nature and highly efficient at finding corner case bugs, but it has serious capacity limitation due to state explosion. Each has its own advantages and limitations.
DVCon 2010
Using Model Checking
Featured Paper by Xiushan Feng, Joseph Gutierrez, Mel Pratt, Mark Eslinger & Noam Farkash

RTL-to-gate logic equivalence checking is a very critical step inside circuit design flows. It is used to make sure the gate-level circuit doesn’t alter functional behaviors of the RTL. Of the various commercial logic equivalence checking tools, Combinational Equivalence Checking (CEC) tools are often used to prove equivalence between RTL and gate due to their high efficiency and good scalability. However, unlike Sequential Equivalence Checking (SEC), which traverses the product Finite State Machine (FSM), combinational equivalence checking proves equivalence for combinational circuits (i.e., Equivalences are formally verified for combinational logic cones between the state points.).
DVCon 2010
Derating of Schottky Diodes
Schottky diodes use a metal-semiconductor junction as opposed to the semiconductor-semiconductor junctions used in standard diodes. This configuration allows for lower forward bias voltage drops (0.15V - 0.45V vs. 0.5-0.7V) and faster switching times, making them ideal for power supply switching operations. Drawbacks for schottky diodes include much higher reverse bias leakage current ratings. Because p-n recombination is not a factor in switching delay time, only capacitance affects the reverse switching time. DfR Solutions
Design Philosophy and
The objective of this document is to highlight Shax Engineering and Systems philosophy and methodology in facilitating engineering and design projects. Additionally, we will discuss the values that govern our elationships with our clients. Shax Engineering and Systems
90nm Migration
8 analog mixed signal IP modules including ADCs, DACs, PLLs, bandgaps. IN2FAB Technology
BSIM3v3.1 Model Parameter
BSIM3 was developed in an effort to solve the problems of semiempirical models and as a complement to BSIM 1-2. It has extensive built-in dependencies of important dimensional and process parameters such as channel length, width, gate oxide thickness, junction depth, doping concentration, and so on. The MOSIS Service
XJTAG boundary scan maximises
6TL Engineering, headquartered close to Barcelona, Spain, producesmodular test platforms that fast-track development of customised electronic production test equipment. The platforms save specialist integrators and in-house test-engineering teams from spending time and effort to implement core functionalities such as control processing, power supplies, instrumentation and commonly used test functionality. Standardised interfaces allow customers to connect their own test fixtures and add specific test capabilities quickly and easily using 19-inch rack modules or, optionally, PXI modules. XJTAG
Modeling, Simulation,
Featured Paper by A.K. Piłat

Introduction: The dual electromagnet configuration of Active Magnetic Levitation system (AML) where the electromagnets are locate opposite to each other, constitutes and single axis of the Active Magnetic Bearing. The same configuration can be used to test the single electromagnet AML controller. A single electromagnet AML was modeled and simulated with COMSOL Multiphysics. The modeling and simulation of the AML configuration is required when a new devices are designed or existing one are modeled for the verification and controller synthesis purposes. In both cases there is a request to add the control feedback to keep the levitated object at the desired position. Therefore, the model must be extended with the motion dynamics and controller formula. Such models are also useful for educational purposes to demonstrate interdisciplinary aspects of modeling, simulation and control. Use of COMSOL Multiphysics: Modeling with support of COMSOL Multiphysics is well suitable for educational and research purposes.
Simulating Crosstalk
Cables not only transfer the power needed to run electrical equipment, but also the data signals needed to operate them. To prevent errors and device failures, the same attention must be paid to the choice and installation of the cabling as is paid to the rest of the system. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
SI/PI and EMC/EMI Simulation
CST PCB STUDIO™ is a specialist tool for the investigation of Signal and Power Integrity and the simulation of EMC and EMI effects on PCBs. Regardless of the application type – high speed digital, analog/mixed signal, or power supply – CST PCB STUDIO (CST PCBS) will help you to get it right first time. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
A Collaborative Data
A standard, common method for classification and structure of machine learning training and inference data for interoperability is critical to enable and accelerate the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning in semiconductor electronic design automation. Subject matter experts from across the semiconductor and EDA industry highlight the differences and common threads in developing industry standards for AI/ML in EDA application data for design areas including digital, analog, shapes-based and IP development. The authors conclude that in order to accelerate AI/ML applications for EDA, a collaborative and coordinated approach is needed. A prerequisite for this approach is establishing the best process for organizing, leveraging and sharing data. Si2 industry survey results show a gap in the availability and organization for AI/ML data in EDA. A common data model would address the data organization gap for chip developers, EDA tool developers, IP providers and researchers by first supporting the high interest EDA areas, design data and derived data.
Advanced modeling methodology
This test case, based upon a SEU soft-error application, demonstrates the power of InfiniScale’s methodology. InfiniScale®
Company Brochure
Our abilities encompass a wide variety of skills, commencing with the initial design and innovation of a product and culminating in the ongoing manufacture of a complete product or assembly. These turnkey solutions are individually tailored and are designed around each customer’s specific requirements. Contract Electronics Manufacturing Services: Kingfield Electronics UK
Using Static Functional
This paper presents a study of verifying a memory controller using a static functional verification tool. Static functional verification is a new technology that does not use vectors or dynamic simulation but analyses the behaviors of a design by the use of a property language. This paper presents the design and verification challenges of a controller, and how static verification was used to debug the design, what improvements were seen in methodology, and what was achieved and learned by using a static tool. Averant
An experience to finish
Featured Paper by Dae-Han Youn, Sik Kim, Byeong Min & Kyu-Myung Choi

Use of behavioral description and HLS (high level synthesis) flow has allowed designers to shorten design TAT (turn-around- time) with its better performance in hardware description, functional simulation and RTL generation when it compared to the design flow with RTL designs.
DVCon 2011
Strategy and Environment
Featured Paper by Erik A McShane & Srini Iyengar

In this paper, we introduce the concept of full-chip mixed-signal validation (FCMSV) for SOCs, in which any top-level ports of an analog discipline are represented as real-valued signals for validation simulations. Secondly, it exploits SystemVerilog syntax, especially “real” ports, to create one testbench suite that spans a project from top-down development to final bottom-up implementation. Thirdly, it presents a global strategy to improve simulation speed by targeting specific analog blocks for replacement by BMODs. This methodology is a generic strategy independent of EDA tool. The methodology and environment outlined in this paper have been successfully applied to validate three successive projects.
DVCon 2010
Featured Paper by Rudra Mukherjee, Gaurav Kumar Verma & Sachin Kakkar

Due to increased complexity in today's SoC designs, the importance of design reuse, verification, and debug becomes inescapable. SystemVerilog [1], VHDL [2], and SystemC [3] have unique strengths which make them more suitable to certain application domains. Mixed-language designs are proliferating because designers want use the powerful features of one language for creating test benches for designs written in the other language. Diversity of design teams with their different preferences, and integrating a growing number of IP blocks in a SoC, often written in different languages, also leads to a mixed-language scenario.
DVCon 2010
The OVM-VMM Interoperability
Featured Paper by Tom Fitzpatrick & Adam Erickson

The Accellera Verification IP Technical Subcommittee (VIP-TSC) has spent the past year-and-a-half developing an interoperability class library to allow OVM- and VMM1-based VIP to work together in a single environment. This paper will describe the primary obstacles we encountered while bridging these two independentlydeveloped methodologies.
DVCon 2010
A Holistic View of Mixed-Language
Featured Paper by Pankaj Singh & Gaurav Kumar Verma

IP reuse has long been touted as one of the key factors in enabling development of today’s complex SoC designs. The concept of reuse seems simple and easy in theory, but there are a number of obstacles that design and verification teams must address to be successful, especially in the case of commercial IP cores. One of the significant barriers to IP reuse today is the wide variety of design languages used in IP.
DVCon 2010
Verification Bug Metrics
  • The hardest question for a DV manager to answer
  • How does chip design use metrics today?
  • How does Software do it?
  • Adapting SW metrics principles to HW design
  • Actual project data
DFM Tips & Tricks II
Even a single sided a board can be viewed from above or below. Clearly marking all layers with right reading text will enable the board manufacturer to verify the proper orientation for your board. The more layers that are employed to make a board, the more important this becomes. Omni Graphics Ltd.
Continuous Glucose Measurement
ASIC development by ZMDI of an implant for continuous glucose measurement. Whitepaper published in MEDIZEN+elektronik Magazine (01/2013) ZMDI
Calculations of the FMR
Featured Paper by M. Mruczkiewicz, M. Krawczyk, V.K. Sakharov, Yu. V. Khivintsev, Yu. A. Filimonov & S. A. Nikitov

FMR spectra of the periodic microstructures (one-dimensional magnonic crystals, 1D MCs) were obtained using COMSOL with use partial differential equation interface. Results of these calculations were successfully compared with an experimental data for Damon-Eshbach (DE) and Backward-Volume (BV) geometries. The presented tool allows to analyze periodic structures with various geometries and material parameter compositions, being at the same time a tool that can serve for optimization and tuning the absorption of electromagnetic waves in ferromagnetic materials.
Computation of Capacitance,
Featured Paper by S.M. Musa, M.N.O. Sadiku & J.D. Oliver

In this paper an attempt has been made to design and analyze integrated circuit interconnects for unshielded four conductors with three levels system using Finite Element Method (FEM). The computational and simulation work has been carried out with help of COMSOL Multiphysics software. We illustrate that FEM is as accurate and effective for modeling multilayered multiconductor transmission lines in strongly inhomogeneous media. We mainly focus on designing of two electrostatic models of unshielded four interconnected lines with three levels system. We computed the capacitance and inductance matrices for these configurations.
VLSI Layout Based Design
Featured Paper by R. Komaragiri, Sarath. S. & N. Kattabomman

This paper focuses on the diaphragm design and optimization of a piezoresistive Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) pressure sensor by considering Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) layout schemes. The aim of these studies is to find an optimal diaphragm shape by Finite Element Method (FEM) using COMSOL®, which is most suitable for VLSI layout. Optimal diaphragm shape is a diaphragm shape that results in reasonable output stimuli with minimal deflection and stress. Three different shapes of diaphragms are considered in this study are circular, square and rectangular. Not only form the VLSI layout aspect, but also from the pressure, stress and sensor output considerations, square shaped diaphragms are preferred.
Terahertz Resonant Dipole
Featured Paper by S. Tuccio , A. Alabastri, L. Razzari, A. Toma, C. Liberale, R. Proietti Zaccaria, F. De Angelis, G. Das & E. diFabrizio

Nanoantennas have been successfully employed in a wide set of applications. We show the possibility to expand usual nanoantenna functionalities in the THz domain with a gold dipole nanoantenna. We considered an array of aligned planar gold nanoantennas over a silicon substrate. The high near field enhancement, localized at the device ends, indicates potential uses for THz spectroscopy and nonlinear optics. Far field properties of the gold nanoantennas are quantified with the resonance frequency positions of absorption and scattering efficiencies. The high field enhancement could be employed for the detection of few molecules with THz spectroscopy, since the effective absorption cross section of a molecule close to the nanoantenna ends would then be enhanced by several orders of magnitude.
Electromagnetic Simulation
Electrically large structures such as aircrafts, ships, land vehicles and satellites have demanding and complex electromagnetic environments. CST STUDIO SUITE® brings together 20 years of experience in the simulation of 3D microwave & RF components, antennas and systems ... CST-Computer Simulation Technology
SuperSpeed Your SoCs
Since the introduction of the original USB standard in 1996, the USB interface has become one of the most successful connectivity standards. In today’s highly connected world, USB connections are found in the computing, consumer, mobile, industrial and automotive segments. Products are far ranging — from PCs and portable audio/video players to cell phones and digital TVs. With the trend of increasing data storage requirements driven by applications, such as high-definition video, combined with the desire to move this data quickly between host, storage, and portable devices, it was only a matter of time before there was a need to make this well-known standard even faster. This heralds the third-generation of this ubiquitous standard — the arrival of SuperSpeed USB 3.0. Synopsys Inc.
Show Me Next-Generation HDMI
With an install base of over 1.1 billion devices worldwide, HDMI has become the de facto multimedia interface for all digital home and mobile/portable multimedia devices. The recently introduced HDMI 1.4 specification further reinforces the HDMI message of performance, reliability and simplicity. Features like the HDMI Ethernet and Audio Return Channel (HEAC), introduced in version 1.4, further simplify digital home theater wiring while adding new and innovative features. In addition, the HDMI 1.4 specification supports advanced media capabilities such as enhanced color spaces for digital still cameras, 3D modes and ultra-high resolution display formats (up to 4x higher than 1080p) that will be key features in the nextgeneration of premium multimedia entertainment consumer electronic products. Synopsys Inc.
Model-based methodology
This test case based upon a case-study MEMS accelerometer demonstrates the power of Modelbased methodology for MEMS sizing and performance optimization. Use of InfiniScale LYSIS tool set alongside with customer reference tools (3D EM simulation) is the only way to create an accurate enough, multi-dimensional behavioral model of the accelerometer. InfiniScale®
New Software Tools Causing
PCB Layout CAD software programs are undergoing dramatic and significant changes as companies release new versions at an increasingly rapid rate. These new versions not only fix bugs, but they add additional features and versatility. 911EDA, Inc.
Virtex-6 FPGA Routing
Xilinx continues to refine the place and route algorithms in each of the ISE® software releases and provides up-to-date information on additional design techniques to help customers optimize routing in their Virtex®-6 FPGA designs, making it easier to reach performance and power design goals and achieve next-generation bandwidth requirements. Xilinx, Inc
Bluetooth 3.0 + HS - Features
This presentation/whitepaper is targeted for developers who already have an understanding of the Bluetooth technology and who would like to get a quick understanding of the new features introduced in Bluetooth 3.0 + High Speed version of Bluetooth Specification. Wipro Technologies
Boundary-Scan Parallel
The market for voice over IP (VoIP) products is one of the fastest growing and fastest evolving markets in the high-tech world. Enterprise level VoIP is expected to grow 20% annually through 2009, according to The Insight Research Group. To stay on the leading edge, companies like Zultys Technologies must emphasize short time-to-market, lowered costs, and superior quality. Corelis
Power Architecture evaluation
Cosmic tools for Power Architecure family, evaluation version limited to 8k. Cosmic Software
An Introduction To Property
The increasing complexity of system-on-a-chip and ASIC designs has caused an ever-widening gap between what can be designed and what can be. It is estimated that between 50-70% of the time required to design a complex IC is spent in verifying that the functionality of the system is correct. Bugs in a design are least expensive to fix just after they are created. At this stage the design is still fresh in the designer's mind and other parts of the project or other design team members are unaffected. Bugs are at least an order of magnitude more expensive to fix during system integration. In this phase it takes more time and people to analyse the cause, regression tests must be rerun, and the entire group may be delayed. These challenges are giving rise to some exciting new tools and approaches in Verification techniques. Averant
Solving Verilog "X" issues
Paper by Mike Turpin of ARM, Ltd., describing how to use Solidify for Sequential Equivalence check in order to uncover hidden "X" values in a design. This is particularly important for an IP provider where the RTL may be implemented using different synthesis flows. Hidden X's can cause differences between RTL simulation and the actual silicon, which are not caught by design flows that rely on other tools such as Logical Equivalence checking. Averant
Finding Reset Nondeterminism
Due to increases in design complexity, routing a reset signal to all registers is becoming more difficult. One way to solve this problem is to reset only certain registers and rely on a software initialization sequence to reset other registers. This approach, however, may allow unknown values (also called Xvalues) in uninitialized registers to leak to other registers, leaving the design in a nondeterministic state. Although logic simulation can find some X-problems, it is not accurate and may miss bugs. A recent approach based on symbolic simulation can handle Xs accurately; however, it is not scalable. In this work we analyze the characteristics of X-problems and propose a methodology that leverages the accuracy of formal X-analysis and can scale to large designs. This is achieved by our novel partitioning techniques and the intelligent use of waveforms as stimulus. We applied our methodology to an industrial design and successfully identified several Xs unknown to the designers, including three real bugs, demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach. Avery Design Systems, Inc
An Experience of Complex
Featured Paper by Sabih Agbaria, Dan Carmi, Orly Cohen, Dmitry Korchemny, Michael Lifshits, & Alexander Nadel

There are two main techniques used for RTL validation: simula- tion and formal verification. The main drawback of simulation is its inability to provide satisfactory design coverage when the num- ber of important scenarios is very large. Formal verification pro- vides exhaustive coverage, but its capacity is insufficient for realis- tic designs.
DVCon 2010
Get Faster Verification
We have numerous ways of expressing our skepticism when it looks like we can get something for nothing. There’s always a price to pay. EVE USA Inc.
Managing Energy Savings
The use of power-aware MCU features along with poweraware software and development tools can lead to significant optimization of low power consumption. Express Logic, Inc
Mobile Tranceiver
A mobile transceiver chip was designed by a fabless IC company and built on a SiGe BiCMOS process. The chip functioned properly in most aspects, except that it fell short of the RF power output specification. So the analog and RF design team rushed to debug and correct the problem. Gradient Design Automation Inc.
Embedded File Systems
Embedded File Systems Add Reliability to Data Management on Flash Micros HCC-Embedded
Design Optimization And
USB 3.0 is rapidly being adopted by a growing number of system level companies, spawning many integrated device manufacturers (IDMs) to develop new chips to address this need. USB 3.0 supports data transfer rates up to 4.2 Gbits/sec, creating new challenges for IC package designers and signal integrity engineers that must be addressed as part of the high-speed SERDES design process. These higher data rates will require substantially improved modeling accuracy of the IC package’s interconnect, wire bonds, vias, and solder balls that are part of such high-speed data paths. Sierra Design Automation, Inc.
High-Speed, Real-Time
Delivering advanced system solutions since 1988, Signatec is a leading designer and manufacturer of high-speed, PC-based data acquisition, parallel and FPGA digital signal processing, continuous signal data recording and arbitrary signal generation systems. Signatec differentiates itself by being one of the only single-source suppliers that works with its customers to build affordable, real-time signal technology systems for advanced radar, SIGINT, ultrasound, imaging and other high-speed communications systems. Signatec, Inc.
Simbeor Screen-Casts
S-parameters quality assurance and macro-modeling automation with Touchstone Analyzer tool in Simbeor Simberian Inc.
Collaborative design
Collaborative design of the FIR Filter Based Hardware and Software Y Explorations, Inc.
Building Zero Latency
ESO is the intergovernmental science and technology organisation in astronomy. It is carrying out an ambitious programme focussed on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities for astronomy to enable important scientific discoveries. Nallatech Inc
Nallatech In-Socket FPGA
In contrast to accelerator devices that attach to an expansion bus, the new generation of computing devices based on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) sits in processor sockets and has the same access to system memory as a CPU. Nallatech Inc
NMCalculator - NeuroMatrix®
NMCalculator - NeuroMatrix® Engine Simulator RC Module
Trace Routing
There are numerous techniques for controlling higher order harmonics caused by fast rise times. Here UltraCad will focus on some of the more fundamental ones that every designer should know about. Omni Graphics Ltd.
EM Simulation of a Low-Pass
Featured Paper by J.E. Rayas-Sánchez, J. Aguilar-Torrentera, Z. Brito-Brito, J.C. Cervantes-González & C.A. López

We perform EM simulations of a low-pass microstrip filter consisting of a cross-junction open stub and two unit sections implemented as defected ground structures (DGS). The defect introduced by unit sections corresponds to an etched lattice on the copper backside ground plane. The filter presents wide and deep attenuation characteristics in the stopband. Different model implementations were carried out with the aim at evaluating the computational costs versus accuracy. Simulations of a high-fidelity model are in good agreement with experimental data reported in a previous paper. COMSOL simulation settings, enclosing box, computational costs, and simulation times for the considered models are provided.
Modeling Microwave Waveguide
Featured Paper by R.W. Pryor

The waveguide device modeled here specifically demonstrates the exploration of a small, but very important, subset of components of the family of microwave hardware devices designed to facilitate the optimized transfer of power from the generating source to the consuming load. Each of those components is called, in electronics terminology, a Tuned Stub. A stub is a length of transmission line or waveguide that is connected to the active circuit at one end only. This paper models a rectangular waveguide with three adjustable stubs distributed along the upper surface of the waveguide. The waveguide stubs are hollow, as is the waveguide, and they are each electromagnetically connected to the inner cavity, at right angles to the central axis of the waveguide via an aperture in the wall of the waveguide. In this case, three (3) stubs have been added along the length of the waveguide to optimize the tuning performance.
Wireless RF Digital System
Featured Paper by .M. Abdel-Motaleb & J. Lavrencik

There is urgent need to monitor dental and oral diseases, such as tooth decay, gum diseases, and teeth grinding. Such monitoring can be achieved by embedding sensors in the mouth. This technique faces some difficulties. The first is how the power needed for the operation of the sensors and the associated electronic chips can be generated. This power can be generated using the pressure exerted by the teeth during chewing on a piezoelectric device. The second is where the chip (LTC3108 power management IC) will be placed in the mouth and connected to the sensors without injuring the patient or causing discomfort. This can be solved by using a Hawley retainer [1], shown in Figure 1, since the chip is very small. The third is how the stored data can be retrieved. The paper addresses this issue and lays the framework for a design to provide digital wireless transmission of data for multiple sensors. Models of EM antenna radiation patterns are used along with circuit designs for analog to digital conversion and digital transmission. The size of the antenna is small enough to fit behind the upper row of the teeth. Our COMSOL design shows that data can be transmitted from the mouth without severe attenuation of the signal from the tissue. COMSOL is used to investigate the design of dipole antennas with impedance boundaries designed to represent different types of skin. The wireless transmission of the circuit is designed for a frequency of 5.8 GHz to accommodate a small size antenna that can fit inside the mouth. Skin depth penetrations of high-frequency EM waves are investigated with different types of biological tissues to determine if transmission through lip tissue is possible. The study shows that EM waves at the frequency of 5.8 GHz will penetrate the skin tissue around the lips. Different thicknesses of skin and fatty tissue were tested for EM wave attenuation at ranges from 2600 to 3100 um and 1 to 1.1 cm, respectively. Figure 2, Figure 3, and Figure 4 show that attenuation varies depending on the angle of incidence between the electromagnetic wave and the tissue. These attenuations vary from -3.1 to -7.3 dB normalized at 2600 um of skin to -3.9 to -8.5 dB at 3100 um skin. This range of attenuation was from an incidence angle of zero to 48.7o. The study proves that EM waves at 5.8 GHz can attenuate thin layers of tissue with a strong enough signal to transmit data. Furthermore, the study identifies the optimal angle range for receiving transmission. While this study was intended for determining if a signal can be transmitted through lips, the model can be modified to study penetration depths of signals for other areas on a human body, different biological tissue, or implanted devices.
GPU Computing
The high memory bandwidth and parallel processing abilities of GPU cards mean that GPU computing can provide significant simulation speed advantages over conventional CPU computing. CST STUDIO SUITE® supports GPU computing in the transient solver, integral equation solver and particle-in-cell (PIC) solver, using NVIDIA Tesla® GPU cards. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
Mastering the development
Today’s “smart” products leverage an intelligent combination of mechanical, electrical and software to deliver capabilities that weren’t achievable before. While bringing significant benefits for customers and for the companies that produce them, they brought as well a new level of complexity to product design and development. In this Whitepaper, Tech-Clarity Research identifies the impact of "smart" products on engineering and product development and outlines a number of tangible steps using proven best practices and technology to improve mechatronics product development maturity. Dassault Systèmes
Sofics hebistor clamps
While High Voltage interfaces are broadly used in many IC applications like motor control, power management and conversion, LCD panel drivers and automotive systems, many IC designers still lack a low leakage, cost effective and latch-up immune ESD protection clamp. This white paper introduces a newly developed protection device and compares it with the traditional approaches, based on measurements on TSMC 0.35um 15V and TSMC 0.25um 40V technology. Within an area of 35.000um², the novel hebistor device with holding voltage above 40V achieves more than 4kV HBM, 200V MM while the leakage and capacitance stay well below typical requirements (<10nA and <250fF). Hebistor devices form a family of high voltage ESD/EOS/IEC protection clamps which are branded under the Sofics PowerQubic portfolio. Sofics BVBA
The Inefficiency of C++,
A widespread "truth" among developers of embedded software is that using C++ results in inferior code size and speed compared with using C. This article will attempt to sort out the facts from the fiction in this statement. By better understanding the underlying mechanisms of the language, a designer can avoid code bloat. In this paper, we will discuss various C++ language features, compare them with C, describe their implications for the ARM code generation, and look at the efficiency of the different ARM architectures IAR Systems
The State of Autorouting
PCB layout begins with a schematic. The schematic can be a simple paper drawing on simple boards or captured in a CAD program for more complex boards. 911EDA, Inc.
One of the most challenging tasks in analog circuit design is to adapt a functional block to ever new CMOS process technology. For digital circuits the number of gates per square mm approx. doubles per chip generation. Integration of analog parts in recent deep submicron technologies is much more difficult and additionally complicated because the usable voltage ranges are decreasing with every new integration step. Cologne Chip AG
Company Brochure
Our abilities encompass a wide variety of skills, commencing with the initial design and innovation of a product and culminating in the ongoing manufacture of a complete product or assembly. These turnkey solutions are individually tailored and are designed around each customer’s specific requirements. Contract Electronics Manufacturing Services: Kingfield Electronics UK
Automatic Verification
DesignCon 2005 paper on using formal verification to verify the correctness of false-path and multi-cycle path constraints in SDC files. Averant
Towards Provable Protocol
Featured Paper by Jens E. Becker, Oliver Sander, Alexander Klimm, J¨urgen Becker, Katharina Weinbergery, Slava Bulachy & Robert Bosch

Serial communication protocols are the backbone in today’s automotive electric/electronic-architectures. Protocol conformance is of paramount importance to ensure interoperability, error free and reliable communication of electronic control units.
DVCon 2011
Complete NAND Flash Solution:
NAND FLASH memories are non-volatile, inexpensive and of high capacity. These characteristics make these devices ideal for fulfilling the storage requirements in the exploding mobile device market. Designers using NAND FLASH devices should follow the ONFI standard interface to ensure that their controller design will operate with devices from any vendor. The memories need both digital and analog interfaces between the devices and the system they serve. When designers add NAND devices to the system design they must consider the least expensive and lowest risk means of implementing the controller. Arasan Chip Systems
Apples versus Apples
Featured Paper by Brett Lammers & Riccardo Oddone

Over the past few years the discussion of hardware verification languages (HVLs) has come full circle. At first, verification teams tried to assess the strengths and weaknesses of individual language features with the goal of creating their own verification libraries and environments but generally without the context of a reuse methodology. As these groups became more sophisticated and sought to exchange and reuse verification IP (VIP), they coalesced on the two IEEE standardized verification languages – 1800 SystemVerilog and 1647 e and moved toward the industry supported methodologies and libraries built with these languages. With the advent of a single methodology implemented in both languages – OVM multi-language – the discussion has returned to HVL features but now that the reuse methodology known, a clear apples versus apples comparison is now truly possible.
DVCon 2010
Mixed Signal Verification
Featured Paper by Neyaz Khan

Virtually all modern SoC designs today are mixed-signal in nature. Most systems have to interface their millions of gates, DSPs, memories, and processors to the real world through a display, an antenna, a sensor, a cable or an RF interface. The already complex task of functional verification at the SoC level is getting harder and more time consuming. Up until recently, mixed-signal designs could be decomposed into separate analog and digital functions.
DVCon 2010
Common Pitfalls in Ethernet
Featured Paper by

Jaspreet Singh Gambhir and Jitendra Puri
MIPI Alliance 2011
Differentiating Noise
Capacitive sensing is emerging as a popular interfacing alternative to switches and knobs in consumer electronics, front panel display applications, and many industrial and automotive sensors. This article describes different kinds of noise impacting any capacitive sensing technology and the methods that can be implemented to overcome different kinds of noise under varied environmental conditions. Cypress Semiconductor Corp.
XDRC • Enhanced Design
The motivation behind the XDRC is to supply designers with a physical verification tool that can verify the design rules of the most advanced technologies. The XDRC surpasses dw-2000's DRC with improved performance, increased capacity, an expanded set of unique rules and provides designers with the flexibility to combine them into complex scripts. Design Workshop Technologies’ dw-2000 software has become the ultimate tool for designing Optoelectronic, Analog, Mixed Signal and Photonic devices. Design Workshop, Inc.
New Methodology on Electro-Thermal
This paper presents a new methodology to characterize and simulate the electro-thermal aspects of packaged power drivers using lateral bipolars. Maximum elevation of junction temperature due to the electrical power stress is sensed in the field of the drivers. Those measurements are further complemented by the transient interferometric mapping (TIM) inspection. Gradient Design Automation Inc.
AWR® iFilter™ Application
Like all RF and microwave components, a differential fi lter design will remain only a simulation exercise if it is not created with its manufacturing process in mind. That is, the tight dimensional tolerances required to meet a set of performance goals must be within the capabilities of the fi lter’s manufacturing process in order to realize a reliable, repeatable fi ler. AWR Corporation
Interconnect Design Exploration
Interconnect Design Exploration in Simbeor 2011 (geometry synthesis, network editor, macro-modeling) Simberian Inc.
WP298 - Power Consumption
At 40 and 45 nm process nodes, power has become the primary factor for FPGA selection. This white paper details how Xilinx designed for this new reality in its recently introduced Spartan®-6 (45 nm) and Virtex®-6 (40 nm) FPGA families, achieving dramatic power reductions over previous generation Spartan-3A and Virtex-5 devices. Xilinx, Inc
Demo version of NeuroMatrix®
Demo version of NeuroMatrix® NM6403 SDK RC Module
Developing Configurable
Developing Configurable IP for System-on-Chip Palmchip Corp.
Avio Aerospace
Avio, a global leader in the aerospace industry with 5000 employees, develops and delivers subsystems and components to major international aeronautical, military, civil and space programs. See below how their trial of OpeniT software yielded a high return on investment, with a 47% reduction of their annual costs for all engineering applications used in Italy. Open iT, Inc.
Achieving Optimal Performance
Cadence Virtuoso is one of most popular applications used by engineers in the semiconductor industry for completing various tasks related to a chip design project. This document provide instructions on how to better optimize Exceed onDemand to maximize the performance benefit. Open Text Connectivity Solutions Group
A High Power Planar Triode
Featured Paper by S. Lefeuvre & M. Ghomi

COMSOL, adding SPICE® elements into its FEM, gives the possibility of a direct modeling of oscillators: triode and load are FEM described while all the other components of the circuit are just simulated using SPICE®. The modeling is not a straight application of any module but needs the previous computation of the conductivity of the beam through the PDE interface. This paper is a bench mark showing the influence of the triode geometry on the performances of the circuit, mainly frequency and efficiency, and their evolution all along the process. It gives to the user of high power triodes/tetrodes the possibility to enter into their design in order to have a tube well matched to their needs, including on the thermal points.
A Study of Geometrical
Featured Paper by K. M. V. Swamy, B. G. Sheeparamatti & G. R. Prakash

This study is performed to know which central plate geometry is best suited for electrostatically actuated switch. The simulation is carried out in COMSOL Multiphysics, where user is free to model the geometry without depth knowledge about geometrical dependency of electrostatic. The study of the centrally suspended geometrical models such as circle, square and rectangle suspended by two short anchors is done. It is found that rectangular central plate suspended plate shows good deflection compared to other three geometries with constant voltage between for all three geometries.
Analysis and Design of
Featured Paper by H. Suri

This poster outlines the results of finite element analyses to study the antenna radiation pattern of an implanted medical device. Also presented are simulation results used to design an electrically small antenna for a portable control unit that communicates with the implants over the Medical Micropower Network Frequency Range [413 MHz to 457 MHz]. Alfred Mann Foundation’s Functional Electrical Battery Powered Micro-Stimulator system (FEBPM) uses a network of micro-stimulators to sequentially stimulate various nerves. The ultimate application of this technology is reanimation for patients who have suffered stroke, traumatic brain injury, or spinal cord injury.
AO@SW with Vrala: Simulations
Featured Paper by C. Del Vecchio, G. Agapito, L. Carbonaro, F. Marignetti, E. De Santis & Y. Coia

VRALA is the ideal candidate as an Adaptive Optics actuator at visible wavelengths. Its electric characteristics variations, suitable current commands, and an effective magnetic circuit geometry provide a 2 kHz correction bandwidth and a 25 mm actuator density. The magnetic core allows unprecedented performances with a negligible thermal impact. Pre-shaping the coil currents greatly simplifies the control system. Equipped with an inductance measure circuit, the current generator also provides the control system with an accurate feed-back signal. COMSOL's non-linear model allows to define the optimized geometry, to compute the dynamic response to the closed-loop control system, and to calculate the circuit inductance. The tests performed on a preliminary prototype, match the design results in terms of power and force.
Computation of Capacitance,
Featured Paper by S.M. Musa, M.N.O. Sadiku & J.D. Oliver

In this paper an attempt has been made to design and analyze integrated circuit interconnects for unshielded four conductors with three levels system using Finite Element Method (FEM). The computational and simulation work has been carried out with help of COMSOL Multiphysics software. We illustrate that FEM is as accurate and effective for modeling multilayered multiconductor transmission lines in strongly inhomogeneous media. We mainly focus on designing of two electrostatic models of unshielded four interconnected lines with three levels system. We computed the capacitance and inductance matrices for these configurations. Also, we determine the quasi-static spectral for the potential distribution of the integrated circuits.
Coupled Electric-Thermal-Fluid
Featured Paper by G. Eriksson

Modern power transmission systems are in general designed to operate at high voltages in order to reduce resistive losses generated by high currents. This, however, tends to increase the risk for dielectric breakdown or flashovers if the equipment is not properly designed to withstand the stress. The present work illustrates how multiphysics simulations can be used to analyze and predict the electric and thermal stress on a high voltage bushing by solving a set of strongly coupled and nonlinear electric/thermal/fluid equations.
Electromagnetic Parameters
Featured Paper by S.M. Musa, M.N.O. Sadiku & J.D. Oliver

The accurate estimate of values of electromagnetic parameters are essential to determine the final circuit speeds and functionality for designing of high-performance integrated circuits and integrated circuits packaging. In this paper, a new quasi-TEM capacitance and inductance analysis of multiconductor multilayer interconnects is successfully demonstrated using the finite element method (FEM) with COMSOL multiphysics. We specifically illustrate two electrostatic models of open three interconnected lines with two levels system. Indeed, excellent agreement with results from the previous methods is demonstrated.
FEM Modeling of Electric
Featured Paper by M. Alsharif, P. Wallace, D. Hepburn & C. Zhou

Failure in cable insulation is generally preceded by a degradation phase that may last several years. A significant cause of cable system failures is the breakdown of electrical insulation between the electrodes. The operational stresses that occur in cable insulation which include thermal, mechanical and electrical effects will vary with time and can cause degradation due to the resulting physical and chemical changes in cable properties. It is widely recognized, irrespective of the causative mechanism, that degradation results in partial discharges (PDs) being generated at the degradation site(s). PDs are small electrical discharges produced by local enhancement of the electrical stress due to conditions around the fault. The internal discharge in insulation material and/or at its interface is caused by the strong and inhomogeneous electrical fields that are usually caused by voids, bubbles, or defects. Treeing discharge is also associated with internal discharge, and it starts from conducting particles or a void in solid insulation. This paper investigates the electric stress within an armoured XLPE insulated cable containing a void-defect. The finite element model of the performance of an armoured XLPE MV underground cable containing void-defect is developed using the COMSOL multiphysics. Use of COMSOL Multiphysics (Electrostatic model): a two-dimensional model of a single-core Cross-Linked Polyethylene (XLPE) cable containing a void-defect has been developed using the COMSOL multi-physics environment. The electrical field distribution in a typical cable construction, is described by a two-dimensional field model. The model is solved for a non-degraded system configuration as a base for further analysis. In addition, an air-filled void is introduced into the model cable insulation to investigate the effect of void presence on the XLPE electrical field insulation system.
Optimal Utilization of Railgun
Featured Paper by N. R. Mahajan, S. B. Patel & Z. A. Khan

Railgun is an electrically-powered gun that accelerates a conductive projectile along magnetic metal rails. Various factors increase the projectile velocity. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. While increasing the projectile velocity, one has to keep in mind the longevity of the rail guns for practical use . Railguns are often damaged after few uses due to the extreme working conditions,reducing their life span drastically. Some of the problems encountered are Velocity Skin effect, Electro migration and flux leakage. We try and provide solutions to some of these problems. We also formulate a theoretical limitation on the current density in the gun. All these factors when simultaneously addressed would increase the life span of the rail gun.
Quasielectrostatic Induction
Featured Paper by J. Leman

The National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) requires that high voltage power lines in the U.S. be designed to limit electrostatic effects on nearby equipment. An example is that of a large vehicle underneath a transmission line. The tires insulate the vehicle’s body from ground. If a person standing on the ground makes contact with the vehicle surface, 60 Hz current can pass through the person. The NESC requires that this current be limited to 5 milliamperes. Common methods for analyzing this phenomenon use geometric simplifications and empirical formulas. The authors used COMSOL’s AC/DC module to perform three-dimensional finite element analysis to calculate vehicle short circuit currents to ground and validate the validate the simplified methods.
Simulation of Piezoelectric
Featured Paper by T. Andersen, M. A. E. Andersen & O. C. Thomsen

In this work COMSOL is utilized to obtain the Mason lumped parameter model for a piezoelectric transformer (PT) design. The Mason lumped parameters are relevant in the design process of power converters. The magnitude of the impedance is simulated for a specific interleaved multilayer thickness mode PT. The PT design has been prototyped and the measurements results are compared with simulations. Two methods for simplifying the PT model are given in order to decrease the simulation time. This paper aims to aid electrical engineers with less knowledge within the field of mechanics, to be able to simulate a PT design with COMSOL and extract the key electrical parameters.
Transient Analysis of
Featured Paper by G.E. Stebner & C. Hartwig

In this paper an EMVD (Electro-Mechanical Valve Drive) for combustion engines is redesigned to achieve a fail-safe behavior when power loss occurs. The AC/DC Module and the Moving Mesh interface of COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2 are used to build up a transient model. This model also includes the calculation of eddy currents.
High Frequency Electromagnetic
Featured Paper by P. Alotto, F. Dughiero, F. Bressan & M. Bullo

Computer simulation is mandatory for the optimization of electromagnetic devices. Here we concentrate on two classes of devices operating in the MHz and GHz range, namely microwave ovens and TEM cells for electromagnetic compatibility testing. In particular we concentrate on the issue that numerical results are usually different from the experimental ones and this can be due, among others reasons, to a much too simplified numerical model or uncertainties in material parameters. In order to address the first problem, we use very accurate numerical models, including electromagnetic and thermal simulation, and perform sensitivity analyses including possible deviations from the ideal case due to manufacturing tolerances (Figure 1), giving us the possibility to simulate a realistic use of the device. For the second problem, in order to avoid inhomogeneity of the load, we performed thermal measurements on a particular material made by agar (2%) and water (98%): its thermal and dielectric properties are very similar to water, but it has the consistency of a semi-solid gel, this allowing us to use different measurements approaches. Using this load, in fact, we can perform several thermocouples measurements (accurate both in position and in amplitude) and we can combine them with results obtained by an infrared camera in order to have a good mapping of temperature distribution inside different loads (both in volume and in shape). Both numerical and experimental results will be presented in order to validate the numerical models; then we’ll discuss different solutions for the optimization of the actual microwave ovens and TEM cells.
Modeling of the Photo-Mechanical
Featured Paper by G. Cerretti, J.-C. Gomez-Lavocat, K. Vynck & D.S. Wiersma

Liquid-crystal elastomers (LCEs) [1] have attracted a great attention in recent years due to their high potential in a wide range of applications, from microfluidics components [2] to artificial muscles [3]. The photo-mechanical response of LCEs is due to their constitutive photo-sensitive molecules, which change shape when absorbing part of the incident light. These microscopic deformations can cause a macroscopic contraction or expansion of the material, depending on the orientation of the molecules, the absorption coefficient of the medium and the light intensity. This phenomenon can be used, for instance, to drive a small actuator with light (see Figure 1). Towards future applications, it is important to develop an ab-initio tool able to couple in an exact way the optical response of the material and its mechanical deformation, in order to gain a deeper understanding of the behavior of LCEs when exposed to a light stimulus. Our work concerns the multi-physics finite-element modeling of the photo-mechanical response of LCEs, using COMSOL Multiphysics. The Radio Frequency package was used to solve the electromagnetic problem of the light scattering and absorption by the object. The resulting material deformation was then evaluated using the Structural Mechanics package by introducing an equation that expresses the strain in the material as a function of the retrieved light intensity. Using this approach, we modeled the macroscopic deformation of a two-dimensional LCE-based cantilever in response to a steady-state plane wave, as a function of the molecular alignment, absorption coefficient and light intensity, and compared our results with a simplified analytical model assuming the Beer-Lambert's law of absorption [4]. A very good agreement was found in the limit of a relatively strong absorption coefficient and/or thick sample, thereby validating our model. On the other hand, we found that when the wave nature of light becomes important, for instance when interferences due to multiple reflections at the interfaces of the medium cannot be neglected, the deformation of the material can deviate strongly from expectations. This illustrates clearly the relevance of our model to treat more realistic cases. In conclusion, by solving exactly the electromagnetic problem, our finite-element model completes the theoretical models known so far on the deformation of LCE-based materials. It can be easily applied to more complex geometries and may find use in a near future in the design of actuators for lab-on-a-chip devices [5] or in the implementation of soft motors [6].
EMC Simulation for Electronic
By law, products must comply with international EMC standards which have been developed to regulate electromagnetic emissions and the susceptibility of electrical and electronic systems. Striking a balance between EMC and competing design requirements poses major challenges to engineers. By including EMC compliant design at an early stage, additional costly development iterations can be avoided later on down the line. Simulation allows problems to be identified and corrected early in the design process, before the first prototype is built. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
Using Plots for HDL Debugging
The most commonly used approach to analyzing objects in an HDL design, is based on the well-known digital waveforms available with any commercial simulator today. Such a time domain representation of data with respect to time, allows verifying many parameters of a designed digital system, but it may not be efficient for applications such as image processing, digital filter design, embedded system design, and others. This document presents Plot, a new solution for a graph-based analysis of HDL objects, correlations between them, and a number of practical applications for it. Aldec, Inc.
Test Equipment Plus Develops
Test Equipment Plus, Inc. provides service and support for the used test and measurement equipment market. They also design, manufacture and sell the Signal Hound® line of portable spectrum analyzers. The first prototypes of the analyzers were in need of a spectral filtering solution to be competitive in the market. This case study describes how Test Equipment Plus utilized the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® electromagnetic simulation tool to design custom filter solutions through virtual prototyping. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
A study of AES and its
This White Paper provides some practical examples of calculating the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) on 16 and 32-bit versions of eSi-RISC. The basic software implementation is refined using known techniques in the literature, and a novel implementation of Bertoni’s transposed MixColumns() transformation provides the most optimised fully software implementation. The final cycle count on eSi-3250 is shown to be better than ARM7TDMI, ARM9TDMI and LEON-2 embedded processor benchmarks and the code density is superior. Finally the white paper looks at how the user-defined instruction extensions can provide additional saving in power, memory and computation cycles. EnSilica Ltd
GiDEL COTs Solutions
GiDEL is a leading designer and manufacturer of commercial FPGA computing, high end data acquisition and processing board-level solutions. Based on Altera’s line of high-density FPGAs, Gidel’s products provide innovative Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) and application-specific solutions for high-performance, real-time signal processing and I/O applications. GiDEL’s products address OEM needs from prototype to production and span a variety of industry standard platforms. GiDEL
The paper describes KaiSemi's unique automated FPGA-to-ASIC conversion process. The process which provides customers with a seamless full turnkey ASIC solution, enabling the customer to buy fully compatible replacement chips. KaiSemi's process uses an in-house tool which performs an automated conversion directly from the original FPGA netlist into a functionally-identical ASIC gate-level netlist. KaiSemi
ACADto3Di is 3D modeler for IC packages that have been "drawn" inside of AutoCAD. It enables any package designer to create a 3D model from a simple bond document. Once converted to the 3Di format, the package can be viewed in 3D and the wires can have a full 3D DRC performed. Artwork Conversion Software, Inc.
Corelis’ Boundary-Scan
Vanguard Managed Solutions (VanguardMS) has been designing, developing, and deploying innovative and cost-effective networking solutions for over 40 years. During that period VanguardMS has established an enviable track record by focusing on “time-to-market” as the most critical element in successfully delivering complete managed-network solutions to meet the needs of its hundreds of customers around the world. In recent years VanguardMS has relied on Corelis’ ScanExpress Boundary-Scan test systems to shorten its development cycles and bring new products to market sooner by improving the productivity of its engineers in the development and debugging of prototype units. Corelis
Boundary-scan Tools from
Spectral Systems, Inc. (SSI) is a leading-edge aerospace engineering and product development company located in southwestern Ohio, the birthplace of manned flight. SSI was founded in 1995 and has grown very rapidly from an engineering service provider to a developer and integrator of advanced Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) and Electronic Warfare (EW) systems, sensors and embedded processors. Corelis
Development of ASIC for
A leading component provider of human interface solutions wanted to develop an ultra low power IC. The battery operated product was designed as a replacement for an earlier passive device to reduce cost and complexity. Customer had made a prototype using discrete ICs for proof of concept for performance however power consumption of the ASIC was the key challenge. Finding a silicon partner was a challenge for the customer as several vendors did not deem the power budget as practically achievable. Cosmic Circuits
The Move to Standardized
In the world of IT, managing desktop churn is a fact of life. After last decade’s flurry of corporate reorgs, you’re supporting more applications than ever before—sometimes 20+ per desktop. You’re also managing more vendor contracts as a result. Attachmate Corporation.
Avago RF VMMK Devices
Packaging has always significantly impacted on microwave IC and amplifier performance. In most cases, the inherent parasitic capacitance and inductance of the package lead frame and wire bonds set a limit to circuit performance. Avago Technologies developed a bonded-wafer-to-wafer package technology in 2004 and now offers innovative microwave gallium arsenide (GaAs) VMMK devices based on the proprietary WaferCAP™ chip scale package. Surfacemount (SMT), very low cost VMMK amplifier and FET devices are available today and soon to be released diodes and detectors will be added to the VMMK series. Avago Technologies
Freescale HC08 evaluation
Cosmic tools for Freescale 68HC08/HCS08 family including CX6808 compiler, ZAP debugger Simulator and ZAP HCS08 BDM debugger/programmer for P&E BDM Multilink Cable. Evaluation version limited to 4k bytes. Cosmic Software
Microarchitecture Property
The evolution of functional verification has been exceptional over the last 10 years including the introduction of SystemVerilog, reusable testbench methodologies such as VMM and OVM, and raw simulator and formal tool capacity, performance, and debug capabilities. Avery Design Systems, Inc
Designers Work Less with
Featured Paper by Orly Cohen, Moran Gordon, Michael Lifshits, Alexander Nadel, & Vadim Ryvchin

Formal Equivalence Checking (FEC) is a technique that formally proves the equivalence of a schematics implementation against a golden RTL model. This equivalence must be guaranteed in light of possible multiple local hand-implemented changes in the schematics. To overcome capacity problems, FEC is usually performed on system sub-blocks, whereas the “environment” is modeled with assumptions written using a property specification language such as SVA. These assumptions must later be proved relative to the driving logic. The majority of FEC tools today are based on SAT-based model checking formal verification engines. In this paper, we describe an approach that can considerably reduce both the time and computational effort required to complete FEC activity in a project. It is based on an additional step introduced to complement the traditional SAT-based model checking algorithm. This step calculates a minimal set of required assumptions using a new SAT-based algorithm. Minimizing the set of assumptions greatly reduces the manual debugging effort required of designers, as well as reduces the number of iterative verifications.
DVCon 2010
Robust System Thermal
Today, process technology has advanced to 32nm, resulting in an increase in the number of transistors per unit area and a reduction in package size. At the same time, system designers are trying their best to reduce the system size by increasing the component density on boards, adding as many features in the design as possible to deliver the industries’ best products in terms of space and size. Increased transistor density inside the chip, higher operating speeds, and increased component density on board in modern electronic systems has led to relatively more heat being generated in these systems. All this has made thermal management an integral and critical part of system management in all application domains, including automotive, industrial control, consumer electronics, battery powered systems, and so on. Many systems are equipped with cooling fans to deal with the heat generated. This has led designers to realize the need to come up with cost-effective, reliable, noise-free, and power efficient temperature-based closed loop fan control systems. Cypress Semiconductor Corp.
Reducing EMI in digital
Over the past couple of decades, more and more applications are going digital. Implementation of digital systems is very simple as it is entirely about logic; however, complexity increases exponentially with signal speed, specifically clock synchronization, setup and hold time, jitter, and so on. These problems affect the functionality of not only the individual subsystem but also cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) when high frequency devices are operating in close proximity. Figure 1 shows a typical example of EMI caused by a DVD player on TV reception. Cypress Semiconductor Corp.
Tunable White Light
Undoubtedly, color plays a significant part in our perception of the world around us. We have often experienced situations where the same object appears differently when illuminated with different light sources, giving the impression that the color of an object is also tied to the light source used. This property of the illuminating light source can be quantized as CRI [Color Rendering Index]. The CRI defines how accurately a sample light source reproduces an illuminated object’s color in comparison to a reference light source of comparable color temperature. Figure 1 shows an example where the same object appears differently when illuminated with light sources of different CRI. Cypress Semiconductor Corp.
Fast controller development
The model-based development of control algorithms on dedicated rapid prototyping systems by means of MATLAB®/Simulink® is an established approach in numerous industry sectors. As a rule, these development platforms are based on powerful embedded processors and operating systems that ensure real-time behavior, fast booting and reliable, autonomous operation in the field. Extensive options for connecting serial communication buses and I/O channels are also usually available. These systems are particularly employed in the automotive industry, which uses them to develop and test the functions of electronic control units in actual vehicles. dSPACE GmbH
Think Anew Why Frequency
Old thought: “If I stop what I’m doing, I’ll be lost and will never start again.” New thought: Sometimes, we have to stop and find our path.1 E System Design Inc.
EDA Gets Ready For DAC
Another DAC is fast approaching and the organizing committee had the task to pull another rabbit from the proverbial top hat in order to lure attendees to San Diego. Hotel prices certainly did not do the trick. It seems that in San Diego the hotel managers have not heard about the recession, or may be they have and figured on DAC attendees to provide needed profits. Either way, room prices, given that DAC has negotiated a block of rooms, are over twice what I will pay at a good hotel with convenient public transportation to the convention center. EVE USA Inc.
EVE’s ZeBu line expanded
The folks at EVE, specialists in hardware/software co-verification, today began shipping four new vertical solutions, further expanding their ZeBu hardware-assisted verification family into computer/peripherals, embedded processors, networking, and video markets. EVE USA Inc.
STIL Verifier: Post-Silicon
Earlier this year, Globetech Solutions announced STIL Verifier, the industry’s fastest route from functional verification to functional silicon test and debug. STIL Verifier aims at extending verification capabilities into the post-silicon validation domain. Its goal is also to leverage verification environment constructs, process data, and design knowledge to increase effectiveness and reduce cost during debug, validation, and volume test of semiconductor devices. Globetech Solutions
Practical chip-centric
Full-chip dynamic electro-thermal simulation is achieved by coupling a circuit simulator and a thermal solver. By letting both simulations run with their specific time-step, a higher computational efficiency is achieved. A scheduler synchronizes temperatures in the circuit simulator and dissipation patterns in the thermal solver on an 'as-necessary' basis. Gradient Design Automation Inc.
Designing Fail-Safe Storage
Designing Fail-Safe Storage for Embedded Systems HCC-Embedded
Simpler Security
lation engineers to customise individual sensors quickly. Costly DIP switches and LEDs are clearly no longer suitable to accommodate all possible requirements, especially with competitive pricing in mind. Storage requirements for all audio possibilities also mean it is simply not cost effective to store all messages all of the time. HCC-Embedded
Ground Current Modification
In this letter, a dual-band parasitic radiator is designed and optimized to modify the current distribution on the ground plane of a handheld terminal. Using a variable-length dual-band parasitic radiator, the ground current distribution is controlled, and low specific absorption rate (SAR) and high radiation efficiency at 900 and 1880 MHz are obtained. The proposed antenna scheme consisting of a dual-band parasitic element and a driven dual-band antenna reduces the peak SAR by 50% and 40% at 900 and 1880 MHz, respectively, compared to a conventional dual-band antenna. Significant increase in radiation efficiency is also obtained. Remcom
WiFi Antenna in Free
: Accurate results are easily obtained after generating a WiFi antenna using the sketching tools in Remcom’s XFdtd Release 7. However, when the antenna design is placed in the realistic operating environment of a netbook computer, it must be tuned for optimal performance. Remcom
IC Socket Footprint –
An IC socket can be defined as an electromechanical device, which provides a removable interface between the IC package and the system circuit board with minimal effect on signal integrity. A removable interface is the major reason for using a socket, and it is required for a variety of reasons, including ease of assembly, reworking, upgrading and cost savings. Ironwood Electronics
Economic Impact
According to Semico Research, the interconnect segment of the semiconductor intellectual property market will be $77M in revenue for 2007, with a compound annual growth rate of 31%, or roughly double the rest of the SIP market. Interconnect revenue surpassed DSP revenue as a category in 2006. The explosive growth of the interconnect segment is a result of the continued acceleration of the complexity being driven into single chip systems and the need to architect complex data flow structures. Outsourcing the interconnect design has become increasingly more economical. Sonics, Inc.
Boost RTL Simulation
The quality of results (QoR) and productivity shortfall statistics of functional verification by conventional simulation methodologies are well known: verification consumes 50% to 70% of design effort and design teams are spending more on verification tools than ever. Yet nearly 40% of designs require a respin and 20% require two respins - and the primary cause is functional error. Find out how hybrid simulation can save your budget and boost both QoR and productivity by turbo-charging your existing simulation methodologies. Liga Systems, Inc.
SEICA shows how VIVA
For a long time ATE companies deliver high quality ICT, Functional and Flying probe Testers. Today’s Electronic trends towards higher density and speed has pushed electronic board testers into an accessibility bottleneck which affects peculiarly the Bed of Nails (BoN). It led ATE companies to allow add-on JTAG testers, using Boundary Scan technique, to restore the declining test coverage. A seamless integration of both technologies is mandatory to make full use of Boundary Scan promise. While Marketers and analysts predict a symbiotic future, SEICA and TEMENTO SYSTEMS demonstrate an efficient integration TODAY. TEMENTO Systems
Automotive Demo
Here is our collection of Wind River Tilcon Graphics Suite industry-specific demos. To see what can be achieved in as little as half the development time of traditional graphic library solutions, download demos to a local folder before running the EXE file. Windows XP or Windows Vista is required. Tilcon Software
Using C++ with Test Driven
This whitepaper explains how Test Automation tools can be used with C++ to support Test Driven Development (TDD) in an Agile-programming environment. This paper assumes some basic familiarity with Test Automation products. Vector Software, Inc.
Ampacity Simulation of
Featured Paper by E. Pelster

The ampacity of a cable depends on the cross section of its conductor. When selecting a cable design for a specific application it is of interest to choose the lowest possible conductor cross section in order to reduce material costs. Therefore an exact calculation of the ampacity is necessary (it is usually limited by the thermal resistance of the insulating cable materials). Commonly the ampacity is determined using semi-empirical methods to evaluate the maximum temperatures. These methods include safety margins that may result in low ampacity values. In this study COMSOL Multiphysics is used to determine temperature conditions in a high voltage cable connecting off shore wind platforms. It is shown that the conventional analytical methods don’t apply to the given conditions and the simulation is able to demonstrate alternative methods to determine the ampacity.
Contactless Power and
Featured Paper by H.P. Schmidt & U. Vogl

For the design of an inductive power and data transfer electromagnetic calculation are carried out. A transfer system is considered for loads that are distributed across some distances. For example, such loads are adjustable speed drives that are found in factory automation and intra-logistic. Physical properties of the inductive transfer are modeled via COMSOL. Lumped parameters are deduced from magneto static and quasi static calculations. Selected operating conditions are investigated with combined field and network calculations. Field calculations are 2D and 3D and they are carried out for stationary and in the frequency domain. Also heating is modeled at a basic level. Results are compared to experiments that are carried out at a purpose built test stand
Electromagnetic Release
Featured Paper by G. Coryell

Flexible electronics are temporarily affixed to a rigid carrier such as glass or silicon prior to device fabrication to facilitate robotic handling of the device, but also to allow optical lithography to stay within overlay design registration budget; without the rigid carrier, a freestanding flexible substrate such as polyimide would distort unacceptably during even minor temperature excursions due to its high coefficient of thermal expansion. Post fabrication the device must be released from its temporary carrier. Others have used UV-release of a temporary adhesive (bond-debond) [1], solvent release [2], backside laser ablation [3], backside sacrificial grinding, backside wet chemical [4,5] and plasma etching [4], mechanical separation [2], and thermal release [2] to affect this release. Each release technique possesses one or more significant disadvantages, including added cost, added processing time, limited throughput, added processing steps, and increased opportunity to introduce defects to a nearly finished device.
Electrical and Thermal
Featured Paper by J. Kundrata & A. Baric

This paper presents the electrical and thermal analysis of an OLED module. The OLED module consists of the OLED tile and the DC-DC converter incorporated in its backplane. The DC-DC converter is realized as an integrated circuit and its inductor is embedded in the the backplane. The DC-DC converter is highly efficient, but a fraction of the electrical power is dissipated in the integrated circuit and the planar inductor. This dissipation has negative consequences on the OLED characteristics. Additionally the planar inductor represents a loop antenna that radiates electromagnetic energy. The radiated disturbance of the planar inductor must conform to the EMC standards. The COMSOL Multiphysics is used to investigate both the electromagnetic and thermal performance of the OLED tile.
Electromagnetic Wave
Featured Paper by S. Singh & A. Marwaha

Electromagnetic wave analysis of waveguide has been done in this paper with the help of Finite Element Method (FEM) based COMSOL Multiphysics. The design is further extended by placing conductor on a dielectric slab included in the waveguide to form a shielded microstrip transmission line. The simulated models are analyzed to determine the wave propagation characteristics. The validation is done by evaluating the critical frequency, propagation constant and transversal field distribution of modes at given phase constant β and angular frequency ω.
Methodology for Calculation
Featured Paper by E.J.P. Santos & L.B.M. Silva

Transmission-line transducers are used for the measurement of absorption and reflection of different materials, such as: liquids, granular medium, and ground. A simplified methodology for calculation of scattering parameters of such transducers is presented. The transducer cell is partitioned at each interface and the partial scattering equations are calculated, considering two interfaces at a time. Next, standard techniques are applied to solve the signal-flow diagrams to obtain the full scattering equations. The proposed methodology has been applied to a coaxial transducer cell filled with different low-loss liquids. The results have been confirmed with computer simulations and experimental measurements. Measurements and simulations were carried out in the 300 kHz to 3 GHz frequency range.
Progress in Numerical
Featured Paper by P. Keutelian, A. Krishnamurthy, G. Chen, B. Ulmen & G.H. Miley

HIIPER is an experimental space propulsion device using a helicon and an IEC as a plasma generation and acceleration stage, respectively. There is an experiment in progress, but for true rapid iteration and to model the performance of the engine, COMSOL is a strong candidate for fulfilling these roles and continuing with the project until its production phase. The simulation is built with very simple forms of each device and as the simulations succeed, additional complexity and detail is added until the full design is achieved. Each device is simulated separately with the goal of using the exit interface of the helicon as the entry interface of the IEC. The primary tools used are the AC/DC, DC Plasma, and Particle Tracking packages.
Simulation and Fabrication
Featured Paper by E.A. Unigarro Calpa, D.A. Sanz Becerra, A. Arciniegas, F. Ramirez & F. Segura-Quijano

A wireless passive pressure sensor and the measurement system were design and simulated using COMSOL 4.3. The sensor is based on MEMS capacitor attached to a planar inductor for wireless powering and readout. An external coil is used for the measuring system. The pressure to be measured compresses the MEMS capacitor and changes sensor's resonance frequency. COMSOL 4.3 was used for the analysis of the two physics interactions. The Electromagnetic Waves module was used to simulate the antenna response and the effect of a coupled sensor in the frequency domain. Solid Mechanics module was used for the simulation of the compression of the sensor caused by an external pressure. Data obtained from the fabricated sensor were consistent with the simulation results.
Simulation of Flux Density
Featured Paper by S. Roy & G. Konar

Energy storage is an essential component for hybrid power system using non-conventional energy resources. Batteries, compressed air energy storage, pumped hydro plants etc. have been developed for storage. However, these have demerits like losses involved in energy conversion and time delay. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) can be a good alternative as it stores electrical energy in the form of magnetic energy involving no loss during supplying the same. Solenoidal or toroidal low temperature superconducting coils (LTS) are in use for SMES [1]. First and second generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils are in operation either independently or with LTS coils in hybrid mode [2,3]. Such a hybrid coil made of BSCCO – 2212 (inner coil) and Nb-Ti (outer coil) was designed [3]. Thermal runaway and excitation tests of the prototype made of the same coil were performed [4,5]. In this work, the 3-dimensional magnetic field distribution of this hybrid coil is simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics. 3D Magnetic Fields section of the AC/DC module is considered for geometry (Figure 1). Preset Studies>Stationary option is selected for DC operation.
Thermal Analysis of Induction
Featured Paper by A. A. Bhat, S. Agarwal , D. Sujish, B. Muralidharan, B. P. Reddy, G. Padmakumar & K. K. Rajan

Induction furnaces are employed for vacuum distillation process to recover heavy metals after electro-refining operation. Induction furnace of suitable heating rate and cooled by passive means are required to be developed for this purpose. It is planned to set up a mock up induction furnace which will simulate the conditions to be realized in actual vacuum distillation furnace for this purpose. The mock-up facility will be used to demonstrate melting of 10 kg of copper in a graphite crucible and heated by induction furnace in a vacuum environment. The coil configuration and electrical parameters of the furnace are to be finalized to attain a temperature of about 1500 degC in 2 hours for the charge. Figure1 shows the schematic layout of the mock-up facility used. The furnace liner enclosing the crucible, essentially coupled with the magnetic field generated by coil, gets heated up and indirectly heats the crucible by radiation heat transfer. The melting of copper takes place in crucible. The copper liner prevents the coupling of stainless steel vessel with magnetic flux lines. The carbon felt insulation is used to prevent the heat loss to the coil and other parts. The stainless steel vessel encloses all the above parts. Thermal analysis of the mockup facility is being carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics code to optimize the various electrical parameters. First the Induction Heating Interface under the Heat Transfer Module of COMSOL Multiphysics was modeled and validated with the experimental data reported in the literature. The validated model was then used for 2D-axisymmetric transient thermal analysis of the mock-up facility. The heat transfer and electromagnetic characteristics have been investigated. The temperature distribution is shown in figure 2. The effect of various operating parameters, geometrical factors and material parameters has also been carried out. This paper details the thermal and electromagnetic modeling of the induction furnace and discusses the results obtained.
Topographic Effects on
Featured Paper by R. Duval, C. Fauchard & R. Antoine

We study the topography influence of levees on the electric resistivity signal obtained with the Radio-Magnetotelluric method. Field measurements have been modeled with COMSOL, using the AC/DC and RF Modules. A levee situated in Orléans along the Loire river (France) has been considered in order to design a model tacking account of the skin depth and the incident wavelength, keeping a constant field in the whole model. The effect of the incident electromagnetic field direction is assessed with two different incident wave directions: BBC 5 and France-Inter. The simulations highlight the tri-dimensional effects in the apparent resistivity, observed on the crest of the levee, depending on the incident field direction and topography. A buried gas pipe is also characterized.
Validation of Space Charge
Featured Paper by M. Cavenago

The well known Pierce design of electron and ion diodes is the base of particle source extraction systems [1,2]. It was heavily studied up to 1960 with analog computing and it now offers us a known case against which to compare the precision of fluid and particle tracing codes. The ideal model assumes zero particle kinetic energy at cathode emission, which is well matched in many sources: the extraction voltage is typically 20 kV, the emitter or plasma temperature below 0.5 eV, to which (in the case of plasma) we can add a small speed perpendicular to plasma surface equivalent to a kinetic energy of about 2 eV. Anyway, in the discretization of ideal model, we have to introduce a thin strip between the ideal cathode position where the ruling nonlinear Partial Differential Equation (nPDE) is singular and the simulated cathode position. In the construction of the COMSOL Multiphysics representation of the fluid model we can input not only the precise geometrical information on electrode size, but also the correctly defined mesh size and starting kinetic energy (all this information must be consistent). The expected and calculated exit radius of test particles agrees better than 4 digit precision (5 digits for most particles). The effect of small perturbations due to non uniform cathode emission current, of practical interest in many ion sources, can be so compared with a validated tool, which is important, since we know that this effect is small. The effect of the small emitter temperature is discussed with particle tracing models. Finally, the effect of anode lens aperture is computed (and compared to calculation), trying to determine aberrations due to finite aperture radius.
Mechanical Model of RF
Featured Paper by R. Chatim

In order to design an RF MEMS based device, it is beneficial to have information concerning mechanical behavior. For model verification purpose, solution offered by simulation software equipped with predefined physics application is one valuable way to provide initial reference. To avoid unwanted particular total strain in RF MEMS structures, a compensation layer can be utilized. When the number of elements involved in the equations is huge and more resources consumed accordingly due to thin multilayers, an approach to reduce is useful, though accuracy is one aspect that has to be taken into account. Behavior of capacitor structure models shown throughout this study gives an opportunity to estimate the fabricated device and for which application it fits.
The Spiral RF MEMS Switch
Featured Paper by K. M. V. Swamy, B. G. Sheeparamatti & G. R. Prakash

This work presents the study of spiral RF MEMS switch which has low actuation voltage due to spiral structure. This work is inspired by the superior performance of electrostatic RF MEMS switches over the conventional state-of-the-art solid-state devices and the potential applications in communication field. The customary high actuation voltage limits the reliability and applications especially in wireless communication, and hence focus on the realization of electrostatic low actuation voltage switches is rapidly increasing. The optimization of actuation voltage is achieved by analyzing the flexure design, beam topology, actuation electrodes and gap height using COMSOL Multiphysics models which are validated by simulations. It is observed that with more and more number of spiral ring structure actuation voltages can be reduced. The serpentine structure is suitable for low actuation switch is modeled and simulated in COMSOL Multiphysics.
Using 3D Electromagnetic
Continental – a global manufacturer of premium automotive multimedia systems for the OEM market – has applied state-of-the-art electromagnetic simulation techniques in the design of its latest car radio and multimedia systems (Figure 1), helping it to maintain its reputation for high quality, robust products. CST-Computer Simulation Technology
Optimization of a Reflector
In this paper a modular approach using the so-called System Assembly and Modeling (SAM) of CST STUDIO SUITE® is used to optimize a reflector antenna system in a piecewise manner. The results are compared to a full system simulation. It is shown that a similar accuracy to that of the full system simulation can be attained with the modular approach with a much shorter simulation time and using less computational resources. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
Installed Performance
The presence of multiple communication antennas on a tower means that antennas may have to be installed in sub-optimal positions. Electromagnetic simulation can be used to design the antennas themselves, and also to optimise the positioning of the antennas on the tower. This article will describe how multiple solvers in CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® can be combined to predict where to install an omnidirectional stacked bicone antenna array to minimise loss of omnidirectionality. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
Nanophotonics and Integrated
This whitepaper gives a general overview on different concepts of photonic crystal cavities. Important figures such as the transmission, the mode volume and the quality factor are discussed. The presented information will help the reader to decide which type of photonic crystal cavities will be most suited for the application in view. A design example for a WDM channel filter is given in order to illustrate the design process for a photonic crystal cavity. Furthermore two experimental examples from recent research are shown to demonstrate the wide range of applications in which photonic crystal cavities could be used. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
Savant - Efficient prediction
CST - Computer Simulation Technology
HercuLeS high-level synthesis
Ajax Compilers ( is a privately funded startup company incorporated in January 2012 in Athens, Greece. The company focuses on the development of electronic design automation (EDA) tools for ASIC and FPGA SoCs, intellectual property (IP) blocks, compilers and code optimization tools. Products developed by AJAX Compilers include a compiler frontend generator, source-to-source code optimizers and intermediate-level profilers, a high-level synthesis environment and an ASIP (Application-Specific Instruction-set Processor) generation prototype. Ajax Compilers
CEDA Currents
IEEE Council on Electronic Design Automation (CEDA)
Error Detection by Code
Exhaustive testing to detect software errors constantly demands more time within development cycles. Software errors with catastrophic consequences have often pushed forward innovations in software analysis and testing. For example after the explosion of Ariane 5 the code analysis tool PolySpace was introduced which could have detected the fault in advance. iSYSTEM AG
Complex Test System for
The test system is capable of carrying out manual and automated tests of standard software modules. As these are standardized software elements that are parameterized in specific applications at a later stage, the test environment has to fulfil high demands on flexibility. iSYSTEM AG
Shortening Verification
This paper details how to create useful timing and flow diagrams so they may be utilized to document a design’s functionality and identify the assertions and cover statements necessary for full functional coverage with the CoverAll™ toolset. Solid Oak Technologies
The Importance of Path
This paper details why the inclusion of path coverage is an integral part of an Assertion Based Verification flow for defining full functional coverage. Solid Oak Technologies
Inductance calculations
How to calculate the inductance/length of transmission lines from two-dimensional, finite-element magnetic field solutions. Field Precision LLC
Designing solenoid lenses
This paper reviews features of solenoid lenses to focus high-current electron beams. It also discusses how to characterize spherical aberration with a numerical orbit code and how to employ scaling methods to organize simulations for maximum generality. Field Precision LLC
Motors and Control Systems
In this article we discuss different types of electric motors for precise motion control (stepper motors, microstepper motors, servo motors) and the impact of the selected type of motor on a motion control system. 1-CORE Technologies
The Necessity of Considering
PCB layout plays a core role in the manufacturing of a printed circuit board. The layout process produces a graphical representation of the circuitry that is necessary to manufacture a PCB. PCB design is a detailed description and graphical representation of the circuit. 911EDA, Inc.
Adaptec MaxIQ is the
Featured Paper by: James E. Bagley

Adaptec, Inc.
The Plumbing. How Do
Today, you are faced with a large number of problems that have to be solved when creating storage platforms. In the past, you selected a CPU performance point, added some memory and a SCSI controller to connect to your disk drives and you were good to go. About the only choice on the I/O side was whether to go with single- or dual- channel SCSI. Adaptec, Inc.
Of the issues facing hardware and software engineers in designing embedded applications, processor performance and total system development cost rank highest. With multimedia, networking devices and other system-on-chip products increasing in functionality and complexity, the ability to wring the most out of a processor is, perhaps, a more pragmatic measure of its value than clock speed. Xyron Semiconductor
SLAC National Accelerator
Information Systems Specialist Chris O’Grady is a member of the development team for the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) initiative, headed by Mike Huffer, at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at the University of Stanford. The RCE is cutting-edge technology which provides electronic data storage for extremely fast detectors. In fact, the detectors that the RCE reads out are so fast they can transmit snapshots at roughly 100 femtoseconds (a femtosecond is 10-15 or one quadrillionth of a second). Corelis
Solidify - Static Functional
The growing complexity of ASICs and programmable parts means functional verification is the nightmare that keeps projects managers up at night. Designers are creating ASICs that can't be completely verified in a reasonable time with the talent and computing resources they have available. As a result of the gap between what can be designed and what can be verified, achieving a functionally stable design is difficult and involves many iterations. This paper presents Solidification, a new low-risk methodology for faster debug of ASICs and programmable parts that significantly reduces verification time and effort while increasing quality and robustness of designs. Averant
Using Formal to Analyze
Reset schemes can be difficult to verify in logic simulation because of the non-determinism caused by unknowns (Xs) in the registers and their inaccurate handling in logic simulation which can mask bugs and potentially lead to failures in silicon. Here, we describe a precise formal approach to X-verification of partial and full reset sequences. Insight, from Avery, addresses two kinds of X issues: Avery Design Systems, Inc
Acreo Uses Visual System
Visual System Simulator (VSS) provides deeper understanding of different system aspects and streamlines optimization of various parameters AWR Corporation
Making A Product People
Touchscreen technology has existed for quite a while. Why did it take the iPhone to set the mobile world on fire for touchscreens? The key is in technology inflections. With the market shift from resistive to capacitive touchscreens, the invention of “gesture” motions, and the crystal clear, solid feel of glass screens, touchscreens have once again caught the attention of the worldwide electronics buyer. Cypress Semiconductor Corp.
Re-programmable microcontrollers are transforming the nature of embedded applications. Embedded applications in many industrial, automotive, and medical applications implement sensors that require calibration during manufacture to store offset, compensation slope or other configuration data. These systems often have used potentiometers or Serial EEPROM devices to set up and store this calibration information. Data I/O Corporation
Comprehensive true all-angle
Physical design is all about maximizing the manufacturable functionality on a single substrate. Increasingly, this requires the ability to design, validate and integrate unconventional devices in diverse manufacturing mediums. Design Workshop Technologies’ dw-2000™ software is a powerful layout creation platform. It supports layout engineers in designing manhattan and complex, curve linear micro devices. For nearly two decades, dw-2000 has provided layout engineers with a proven product used in the physical design of microelectronic, RF, MEMS and photonic structures. Design Workshop, Inc.
Photonics Element Library
The Photonic Element Library is specifically designed to provide the photonic industry with a complete backend solution for designing photonic devices. It employs the unique features of dw-2000™, such as our allangle, GDSII native, hierarchical database, and includes a library of parametric optical elements. These photonic elements enable designers to quickly go from simulation to ready-to-manufacture layouts. Design Workshop, Inc.
ESD Survey for Telecommunications
In a previous failure analysis project of a customer’s telecommunications product, DfR Solutions had identified Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) damage to several different GaAs integrated circuits. In addition, DfR determined that these parts had ESD sensitivity as low as 100V, which placed the components under the most sensitive ESD Component Sensitivity Classification of Class 0 (<250 volts). DfR Solutions
3G Video Applications
Now that 3G networks are available in China, innovative 3G commercial applications have become a major means of increasing profitability. To support diverse applications and devices and interconnect them, a 3G application delivery system is required that also provides a user-friendly experience and an increased level of personalization through an Interactive Voice and Video Response (IVVR) interface. Dialogic
Addressing Video Processing
This white paper discusses how the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) network can be used to convert video content so that it is accessible to any user, and how network-based processing techniques could be applied to a wide variety of applications. Dialogic
Are You Ready for HD Voice?
This white paper provides an introduction to HD Voice and discusses its current adoption rate and future potential. It also describes research trials and implementation issues, and sets HD Voice in its industry context. Dialogic
Carpetright Electronic
Carpetright selected Fujitsu’s IMAC (Install, Move and Change) and break/fix services. IMAC ensures the hardware with its preconfigured POS software solution is delivered and installed correctly. As part of the on-going support, Fujitsu’s break/fix services guarantee a four-hour resolution to critical failures and deliver next-day response to less critical issues. Fujitsu Microelectronics
Thermal Properties and
We review our latest developments in the field of Raman thermography and its application to GaN microelectronics. Device self-heating, the temperature rise in a device generated by electrical power dissipation, plays an important role for device performance and reliability, however, is difficult to assess as it occurs on sub-micrometer length scales in most devices, not observable using traditional thermography techniques. Gradient Design Automation Inc.
Using Simulation to Optimize
Successful integration of an antenna onto a vehicle platform poses many challenges. Vehicle features impact antenna performance by blocking, refl ecting or reradiating energy, and co-site interference can impair the effectiveness of multiantenna confi gurations. Remcom
Automatic Target Recognition
In previous work, we have demonstrated the utility of a feedback loop for enabling optimized transmit pulse shaping in radar target recognition. This previous work was based on low-fidelity target models, but in this paper, we demonstrate the closed-loop, adaptive-waveform approach applied to highfidelity target model signatures generated by commercial electromagnetic FDTD software. We also incorporate the radar equation into our models for us in the waveform design procedure. Because SNR varies with range, so do our optimized waveforms for target recognition. Constant-modulus waveform constraints are enforced, and a template-based classification strategy is used. Remcom
DOE relates Spring Probe
One of the modern world’s driving engines is the semiconductor also referred to as the IC (Integrated Circuits). These ICs are fabricated, assembled and tested in billions of units every year. The semiconductor industry is being driven by the mantra “small, fast and cheap”. Ironwood Electronics
Introduction to Sonnet
Introduction to Sonnet Software and the Sonnet Suites Sonnet Software, Inc.
GEN2 Serial RapidIO AND
As bandwidth requirements for applications such as wireless, wireline and medical/imaging processing continue to grow designers depend on the toolsets necessary to provide them with the real-time signal processing capabilities that are needed. Lattice Semiconductor Corp.
Tensilica DSP Targets
Cellular networks delivering 1Gbps of raw data throughput are on the horizon, and Tensilica is designing a DSP to meet the baseband-processing requirements of such networks: the ConnX Baseband Engine 64 (BBE64). The BBE64 achieves its performance by employing wide execution units that support up to 128x 18-bit operations in parallel, wide 640-bit registers, and massive I/O. The company targets a performance increase of 5-15 times for the BBE64 compared with the currently availablwe BBE16 for LTE. Tensilica Inc.
Tiempo Lets Things Happen
Hawaii is a different beast. It may be part of the US, but things operate with mindset unfamiliar to the typical go-go American, as you’ll immediately discover when waiting to get your rental car. They refer to it quaintly as “Aloha time.” Tiempo
Trenz Electronic GigaBee
Trenz Electronic GigaBee XS6LX series are industrial- grade FPGA micromodules integrating a leading- edge Xilinx Spartan-6 LX FPGA, gigabit Ethernet transceiver (physical layer), two independent banks of 16-bit-wide 128 MByte DDR3 SDRAM, 8 Mbyte SPI Flash memory for configuration and operation, and powerful switch-mode power supplies for all on-board voltages. A large number of configurable I/Os is provided via robust board-to-board (B2B) connectors. Trenz Electronic GmbH
User2User 2010: Simulation-Based
Presents a case study on how the Open Verification Methodology (OVM) was successfully applied to implement a SystemVerilog simulation-based conformance test environment for next generation FlexRayTM 3.0 Communications System controllers. Verilab
XJTAG cuts PCB debug
Boundary scan testing offers a solution to the challenges presented by high component density, the increasing use of area array packages – such as ball grid arrays (BGAs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) – and the prevalence of complex, multi-layer PCBs, which make test probe access and bed of nails testing impossible for many new board designs. The XJTAG Development System aims to solve these challenges and also allows test programs to be re-used and optimised for production testing. XJTAG
System-Level Design Tools
System-Level Design Tools and RTOS for Multiprocessor SoCs Y Explorations, Inc.
The Benefits and Applications
With the current rise in oil prices, along with the growing costs associated with oil and gas exploration and production, E&P companies are depending more than ever before on advanced computer simulations and computer modeling to make better predictions and get more oil out every well drilled. Countless IT resources are consumed in order for businesses to remain competitive. Open iT, Inc.
3D Modeling of Plasmon
Featured Paper by G.G. Gentili, S. Pietralunga & M. Bolzoni

Grating-assisted optical coupling into long-range modes of strip plasmonic waveguides is analyzed by a 3D numerical simulation with COMSOL Multiphysics. We used the RF Module and its scattering formulation. A comparison with results obtained using the common 2D approximated analysis is shown for the case of 1D grating coupler and input Gaussian beam. Excited diffracted modal field distribution is calculated as it evolves in propagation. The computation is demanding because of the large box size (40x30x4 lambda^3) and has been carried out on a Linux workstation with 96 GB of RAM. Some peculiar features of 3D analysis compared to 2D analysis are pointed out such as frequency shift of the maximum and higher order mode excitation.
A Numerical Comparison
Featured Paper by U. N. Mughal & M. S. Virk

Atmospheric ice is a very complex material with varying electrical properties due to different polymorphs of ice itself. Also, if the medium to be considered is snow, then density becomes an additional parameter because it is a mixture of three dielectrics water, ice and air. The permittivity and loss tangent of naturally occurring ice and snow shows lot of variation at different conditions particularly temperature. This paper is a comparative study of some experimental results found from literature and simulations of dielectric properties of ice and snow in Comsol.
A Study on the Suitability
Featured Paper by A. Shetty, K. J. Vinoy & S. B. Krupanidhi

As interest in the electromagnetic spectrum expands towards the infrared and terahertz range, the distinct advantages of using semiconductors instead of metals for plasmonic applications must be understood. Plasmonic resonances in gold (Au) and indium nitride (InN) gratings are studied, in the terahertz (λ=30µm) regime. The electromagnetic properties of Au and InN are described by the Drude model. InN, has a lower plasma resonance frequency of fp ≈ 52 x 1012 Hz (Far IR) as compared to that of Au which has fp ≈ 2.18 x 1015 Hz (optical range). This leads to InN plasmonic structures demonstrating a greater confinement of surface waves to the interface and greater field enhancement (~1.4 times) as compared to Au in the THz regime.
Assessing COMSOL Performances
Featured Paper by E.A. Badea, J. Oesterheld, S. Friedel & M. Olsson

Multiphysics processes manifest in turbo-generators due to the leakage electromagnetic field of the stator and rotor end winding and its associated effects at machine frontal end. Such processes are a compilation of coupled phenomena having different electromagnetic, thermal, fluid flow and mechanical backgrounds. Electric current circulation through the metallic frames used for stator core clamping and support, insulation design for the stator end winding, or electromagnetic forces acting on the stator end winding involute, are just a few relevant topics of interest for turbo-generator manufacturers.
Calculating the Haze
Featured Paper by A. Čampa & M. Topič

In thin-film solar cells (a-Si:H, µc-Si:H, CIGS, etc.) scattering of light is very important to increase absorption of light in the active layers of solar cells. Today the most efficient thin-film solar cells are designed or deposited on random textured transparent conductive oxides (TCO). In order to study the scattering properties of the surface texture we have developed a numerical model in COMSOL, which calculates the scattering parameters from atomic force microscopy scan of surface texture/topography. This way we can study and evaluate the texture capabilities to scatter the light before producing such a texture, thus reducing time and cost for studying new types of textured surfaces. The simulation results obtained from the numerical model were compared to measured values.
COMSOL Aided Design of
Featured Paper by M. Valentinuzzi, E. Ceccolini, D. Mostacci, M. Sumini & F. Rocchi

The electron beam emitted backward by Plasma Focus devices is being investigated as a radiation source for IORT (Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy) applications. A Plasma Focus device is being developed to this aim. The electron beam is driven through an electron pipe made of stainless steel to impinge on a 50 μm brass foil, where conversion X-rays are generated. Electromagnetic forces in the Plasma Focus device have to be investigated to understand their influence on the electron beam produced by the extraction tube. The AC/DC Module in COMSOL is being used to simulate the electromagnetic field in the extraction tube to determine the optimum material.
Electromagnetic Actuators
Featured Paper by O. Craciun, V. Biagini, G. Mechler, G. Stengel, C. Reuber & A. van der Linden

Introduction: Medium voltage reclosers are representing nowadays an important link between transmission power systems and low voltage grids. With a high level of renewable energy penetration, the medium voltage networks are becoming bidirectional. Therefore, the associated switching devices must ensure the protection of newer types of power systems as well as new types of loads. The optimal design of medium voltage reclosers is therefore important in order to enable high level switching capabilities. GriedShield recloser is a well know medium voltage protection device where the single coil actuators are being successfully used. GriedShield recloser has the ability to perform as a recloser, sectionalizer or automated load break switch. Proven design rated for 10.000 full load operations [1]. One pole of such device can be considered as being composed of two main subsystems: power and actuation. The first is represented by the power connections and the key element that ensures the arc extinguish - the vacuum interrupter [2]. The second subsystem can be either mechanical or an electromagnetic-based actuation unit. The electromagnetic solution presents several advantages compared to the mechanical approach, such as fewer components, higher reliability and less maintenance. The dynamic characteristics of electromagnetic actuators are strongly influenced by their shape, material proprieties, electric and mechanical elements. The magnetic, electric and mechanical dynamics are actually mutually dependent, with each affecting the others. Therefore, in order to ensure a fast and efficient design it is important to consider the Finite Element modeling and simulation enabling electromagnetic actuators virtual prototyping. This paper focuses on modeling, simulation and optimization of the electromagnetic actuators integrated in ABB’s reclosers. In the next section, this paper gives an overview regarding the operating principle of a single phase recloser. The third part focuses on the set-up of a steady-state 2D finite element simulation including materials non-linearity. The fourth section illustrates the coupling of the 2D model with an optimization software, modeFrontier [3] as well as an optimization case study. The next section introduces the challenges related to the actuator’s modeling and simulation in 3D Transient. The final part of this paper presents the contribution of this work as well as the perspectives.
COMSOL Multiphysics Super
Featured Paper by H. Ahmadpanahi, D. Grabovičkić, J.C. González, P. Benítez & J.C. Miñano

Recently it has been proved theoretically (Miñano et al, 2011) that the super-resolution up to λ /500 can be achieved using an ideal metallic Spherical Geodesic Waveguide (SGW). This SGW is as a theoretical design, in which the conductive walls are considered to be lossless conductors with zero thickness. In this paper, we study some key parameters that might influence the super resolution properties reported in (Miñano et al, 2011), such as losses, metal type, the thickness of conductive walls and the deformation from perfect sphere. We implement an realistic SGW in COMSOL Multiphysics and analyze its super resolution properties The realistic model is designed in accordance with the manufacturing requirements and technological limitations. Here we present the results for models, the ideal and the realistic SGW.
Design of Tunable Metamaterial
Featured Paper by K. Tarnowski & W. Salejda

Currently there is much interest in electromagnetic metamaterials [1-9]. In our work we have focused on design of tunable metamaterial which can be made within available technology. In proposed design we use metallic split-ring resonators and thin-wires (Figure 1). Moreover we have decided to introduce nematic liquid crystal layer in design to obtain tunability (Figure 2). One can control propagation of electromagnetic waves by changing orientation of liquid crystal molecules. We have used COMSOL Multiphysics to validate our design with electromagnetic simulations where scattering parameters (elements of scattering matrix) have been computed. Afterwards we have retrieved effective refractive index, permittivity and permeability. Obtained results allow us to state that proposed metamaterial can be applied in construction of phase-shifter operating near 90 GHz. We have confirmed high tunability of proposed design. Relative change of real part of effective refractive index was about 67%, and relative shift of minimum of real part of refractive index was about 1.8%. We have recommended final structure to practical realization. We believe that our work could be used to further optimization of electromagnetic devices (phase-shifters, filters etc.).
Finite Element Simulation
Featured Paper by K. Madhusoodanan, J. N. Kayal & P. K. Vijayan

In Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs), the fuel bundles are located inside horizontal pressure tubes made of Zr 2.5 wt% Nb alloy. During reactor operation, pressure tubes undergo corrosion reaction with the heavy water coolant flowing through it and picks up a part of the hydrogen evolved. Assessment of the hydrogen concentration in the pressure tube forms part of the programme to assess the integrity of the component for continued operation. Presently, sliver samples are removed from the inside surface of the pressure tube and the hydrogen concentration is measured in laboratory from them using dedicated instruments. As the process involves considerable time and considerable radiation exposure, an insitu technique for the measurement is being developed. In this method, a tool head is inserted in the pressure tube and the hydrogen concentration is measured using an innovative technique. The tool head consists of a few modules and one of which is a split type induction coil for heating the pressure tube. Design of the coil geometry and other parameters are to be optimised to get the required heating pattern in the pressure tube. The flux from the induction coil also shall not interfere with the other modules which are a part of the tool head. The problem has been simulated using finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics. This paper gives details of the analysis carried out and the optimised parameters.
Magnetic and Circuital
Featured Paper by E. Scotoni, C. Tozzo, D. Zoccarato & F. Paganini

A three phase transformer with very low harmonic pollution transferred back to power line is here presented. In fact, thanks to the described setup, intermediate harmonics (5th and 7th) are not going out back to the power line feeding the primary. These results has been extensively validated versus measurements performed on produced and shipped machine. With these results, TMC is then featuring thermal and structural studies in order to know before the construction the working temperature and mechanical stresses of different parts both in normal working configuration and in presence of internal or external failures. From this knowledge TMC is then able to motivate and assure his customers about the employment of given materials and technical solutions.
Nonstandard High Voltage
Featured Paper by T. Christen

The design of modern electric insulation devices for medium and high voltage (HV) applications requires computational work that goes beyond solving just a Laplace equation for the electric potential, and limiting the electric field below critical values. Both field calculation and determination of breakdown limits are often challenges for the development of HV insulation systems. Two examples are discussed. First, it is shown how the field distribution is modeled and simulated if injected space charge dominates the electrical behavior, which occurs particularly in gas insulation with Corona discharge or in in HV direct current (HVDC) solid polymer insulation. Secondly, a recipe is provided for modeling and simulation of dielectric breakdown of gases via electric sparks in the form of streamers.
Numerical Calculation
Featured Paper by J. Güdelhöfer, R. Gottkehaskamp & A. Hartmann

This paper shows how a time-dependent and non-linear simulation of the dynamic operation behavior of an induction machine is executed by means of the "Rotating Machinery" interface from COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2a. The two-dimensional FEM model is connected to electrical circuits by coupling the physics "Rotating Machinery" and "Electrical Circuit" interfaces. These circuits include the lumped electrical components to simulate the electrical effects in the end area as well as the three-phase-voltage system to supply the stator. Simulations are made for constant slip values as well as dynamical start-up with an additionally defined equation of motion as an ordinary differential equation by means of the "Global ODEs and DAEs" interface.
Numerical Modeling of
Featured Paper by J. Golebiowski & S. Milcarz

The silicon cantilever with the planar coil was applied to the magnetic flux density measurements. The influence of shape and dimensions of planar coil on magnetic energy density was described. In cause of magnetic anisotropy of analyzed silicon structure FEM method and couple field method was applied in simulation. The Lorentz force based sensors owing to their potentially simpler fabrication and better stability seem to be a better solution. Therefore, the Lorentz-force acting on a microcantilever with the planar winding has been a promising alternative for the measuring of the quasi-stationary and low frequency magnetic fields. The dependence of the beam size on the beam end displacement and its angle as well for the assumed magnetic induction was carried out.
Numerical Simulation
Featured Paper by G. Fanti, L. Matordes, V. Amoruso, M. Bullo, F. Lattarulo & G. Pesavento

The TS (Turin Shroud) [1,2] is a fine linen fabric showing a not yet explainable [3] double body image of a scourged and crucified man stabbed on the side. Many hypotheses have been formulated without success [4] and perhaps the most reliable is one correlated to the Corona Discharge [5] that supposes the presence of an intense electric field, amplified by the presence of ionization induced by radon. Before to formulate specific hypotheses regarding the environmental conditions, that will be studied in the future, the analysis focalizes the interest on the verification of the effects of such an electric model on a linen sheet. Therefore the first steps is to simulate the electrostatic field distribution along a two-dimensional sheet enveloping a numerical manikin of a human body having his position coherent with that detected on the TS [6]. Two of the authors [7] have already performed a preliminary analysis using a rough numerical manikin composed of 11 ellipsoids.
Numerical Simulation
Featured Paper by M.K. Ghantasala, B.O. Asimba, A. Khaminwa, K.J. Suthar & D.C. Mancini

The understanding of pH-sensitive hydrogel swelling response in different buffer environmental condition is essential for its use in different practical applications. This necessitates its simulation in steady state and transient conditions. This paper mainly deals with the details of the numerical simulation performed by developing coupled formulation of chemo-electro-mechanical behavior of the hydrogel in response to changing pH of the surrounding solution. Simulations were performed to determine the response of hydrogel with varying pH of the surrounding solution in a wide range of pH (2-12). The investigation of the responsiveness of the hydrogels is focused mainly on the study of effect of variation of pKa and Young’s Modulus of the gel. The methodology used for this finite element based simulation is presented. The swelling characteristics of the hydrogel obtained under steady state conditions in these investigations are compared with previous simulations using other models/methods. This analysis is carried out using COMSOL and the effects of fixed charge density, buffer solution pH and Young’s modulus on the swelling were studied in different simulations. These simulation results are compared with available experimental evidence to show the accuracy of the model.
Numerical Study of a
Featured Paper by N. Kandev

This work presents the results of a 3D numerical magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of an electromagnetic DC pump for liquid metal using a rectangular metal flow channel subjected to an externally imposed transversal inhomogeneous magnetic field. In this study. 3D numerical simulation based on the finite element method was carried out using the computer package COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a.The application and the limits of the electromagnetic and the hydrodynamic models are discussed herein. The results of two typical examples are summarized here, including laminar brake flow and pumping conditions for turbulent metal flow. These simulations accurately represent the formation of an M shaped velocity profile of liquid metal and are consistent with the results of recently published experimental and theoretical works.
Operation of an Electromagnetic
Featured Paper by D. Križaj, Z. Topčagić & B. Drnovšek

Numerical simulation of an electromagnetic trigger with a short-circuit ring is presented. The main goal of inclusion of a short-circuit ring in an electromagnetic trigger is to develop an element suitable for use in a circuit breaker with capabilities of selective switching. The main problem to be solved is vibration of a moving contact due to zero electromagnetic force between the anchor and the core at zero driving current. Inclusion of a short-circuit ring into the core results in induction of current in the ring during flux change. This current produces magnetic field that superimposes onto the main field and results in non-zero force between the anchor and the core during zero driving current in the windings. Numerical simulation reveals that inclusion of a short circuit ring does not significantly decrease the maximal force and that it effectively reduces vibrationy of a moving contact.
RFID-Enabled Temperature
Featured Paper by I.M. Abdel-Motaleb & K. Allen

The design of a RFID-enabled temperature sensor is described in this paper. In this sensor, a change in temperature causes structural beams to bend, which results in a proportional displacement of the plates of the capacitor. Plates' displacement results, in turn, in changing the value of its capacitance. The capacitor of the sensor is coupled to the LC resonant network of a passive RFID tag. This makes the tag's resonance frequency dependent on the value of the sensor's capacitance. Hence, by measuring the shift in the resonance frequency, one can measure the change in temperature. COMSOL multiphysics program was used to design the sensor and simulate its performance. Simulation results show that the designed sensor can have a resolution of about 0.0014 °C/Hz. This sensor can be implanted on a tooth or a dental implant to monitor the mouth temperature.
Simulation of a Magnetic
Featured Paper by H. Mahdavi & J. Rosell Ferrer

The human body consists of many different types of tissues each with specific passive electrical properties. Vital activities lead to a characteristic change of these properties and geometrical changes. Magnetic induction is a non-contact method which can be used to determine these changes. The method is based on the creation of a primary magnetic field that will produce eddy currents in the trunk, currents will produce a secondary magnetic field that has to be detected around the trunk. The objective is to know the sensitivity of such a method to the geometric and impedance changes in the trunk considering the safety issues.
Superconducting RF Cavity
Featured Paper by I. Terechkine, T. Khabiboulline & D. Sergatskov

Performance degradation of a superconducting RF cavity after quenching in an external magnetic field was calculated using COMSOL. This degradation is due to the increased resistance of a superconducting surface with trapped magnetic flux. The amount of the trapped flux depends on the size of the normally-conducting opening that develops in the superconducting wall of a cavity during quenching. This size is found by solving time dependent problem of heat propagation in walls of RF cavities; the trapped flux can be found by making static magnetic modeling for any specific geometry that includes the quenching cavity and a source of the magnetic field. Results of simulation are compared with the data obtained in a specially designed experiment.
FEM Based Design and
Featured Paper by N. Gurler & Y. Ziya Ider

Designing a Radio Frequency (RF) birdcage coil used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at high frequencies where the wavelength is comparable with the coil dimensions is a challenging task. Before construction of the coil, not only calculating the capacitance value which is necessary for the coil to resonate at the desired frequency but also geometrically modeling the coil in a 3D simulation environment and making electromagnetic analysis inside the coil have importance in terms of observing the resonance behavior and other performance features of the coil. This study covers both design and simulation methods of low-pass and high-pass birdcage coils in COMSOL Multiphysics and the software tool developed to perform these design and simulation methods according to user-specified parameters.
Going beyond Axisymmetry:
Featured Paper by Y.A. Urzhumov, N.I. Landy, C. Ciraci & D.R. Smith

Linear wave propagation through inhomogeneous structures of size R≫λ (Fig.1) is a computationally challenging problem, in particular when using finite element methods, due to the steep increase of the number of degrees of freedom as a function of R/λ. Fortunately, when the geometry of the problem possesses symmetries, one may choose an appropriate basis in which the stiffness matrix of the discretized problem is block-diagonal. A particular scenario is the case of a cylindrically-symmetric geometry, where an appropriate basis is the set of cylindrical waves with all possible azimuthal numbers (m). Each of the excited cylindrical harmonics propagate through the structure independently of all other harmonics, and therefore the fields associated with that harmonic can be found by solving an essentially two-dimensional PDE problem in the ρ-z (half)-plane. The cylindrical waves have a prescribed dependence on the azimuthal angle variable (φ), hence the name – 2.5D electromagnetics. This novel approach is applied to the problem of cloaking and wave scattering off a spherical nanoparticle on metallic and/or dielectric substrates.
Launcher Design for Chemical
Featured Paper by F. Gao & D.W. Greve

We report here on the use of the COMSOL emw (electromagnetic waves) module in the design of a microwave launcher. This launcher is to be used in a microwave Doppler sensor that is incorporated into a chemical looping combustion system. The launcher is designed in two steps. First, we determine the best mode for launching a wave into air from an overmoded cylindrical waveguide. he TE11 mode is desired for efficient launching from the cylindrical waveguide into the flow region. We then develop a transition from a coaxial transmission line to the cylindrical waveguide. Of three different designs, a taper launcher is best for efficiently coupling microwave energy from a coaxial line to the cylindrical waveguide.
Microwave Inactivation
Featured Paper by S. Curet & M. Mazen Hamoud-Agha

In this study, COMSOL®4.2a is used to model a microwave heating process in a TE10 rectangular waveguide. The sample consists of a small cylindrical Ca-alginate gel (D = 8 mm, H = 10 mm) inoculated with bacteria Escherichia Coli K12. The sample is placed along the microwave propagation direction into the waveguide. Maxwell’s equations and heat transfer are coupled to a microbial inactivation model under dynamic heating conditions. The microwave inactivation of bacteria is compared to a conventional inactivation by conduction with the same heating ramp during 4 min 30 s. The study clearly demonstrates that the microwave heating of small cylindrical sample is not homogeneous under dynamic heating conditions resulting in lower bacteria inactivation comparing to conventional heating.
Numerical Study of the
Featured Paper by F. Frezza, F. Mangini, M. Muzi, P. Nocito, E. Stoja & N. Tedeschi

The scattering by a buried sphere in the frequency domain with the use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) implemented by COMSOL Multiphysics, is analyzed. A short-pulse is used as an excitation with the spectrum spanning from 50 MHz to 1 GHz. In order to validate our results, a comparison with data available in the literature is presented, in the simple case of a perfectly-conducting (PEC) sphere. Afterwards, to gain insight on the role of the sphere radius and the distance of the buried sphere from the interface, other simulations are performed. The case of a dielectric sphere, instead of the perfectly-conducting one, is studied too.
Low Frequency Electromagnetic
CST STUDIO SUITE includes various solver modules that are ideally suited to the analysis of static and low frequency devices. CST EM STUDIO®(CST EMS) is dedicated to full 3D EM simulation in a wide application range, including sensors, circuit breakers, magnets and coils. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
SCE-MI Macro-Based Interface
As System-on-Chip (SoC) designs grow more complex they demand a higher-level of abstraction to functionally verify all modes of operation. The main focus of Accelera’s SCE-MI Co-Emulation Modeling Interface is to avoid communication bottlenecks when interfacing software models to current hardware emulation platforms during SoC verification. This allows the system to be modeled realizing its full performance potential. In this white paper, we will be discussing the Macro-based SCE-MI interface which utilizes synthesizable RTL macros which provide connection points between transactors and SCE-MI infrastructure. Aldec, Inc.
Low Frequency Electromagnetic
In the world of electromagnetic and electromechanical design, state-of-the-art Finite Element simulation is critical to the virtual testing of new concepts and optimization of existing designs. CST EM STUDIO® is a specialist tool for the static and low frequency simulation, design and analysis of electromagnetic devices. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
eASIC reduces multi-level
When designing a chip for a high-speed application, the whole channel, including the package and the printed circuit board affects the performance. Find out how multi-level package design times can be reduced with the help of CST. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
CST STUDIO SUITE 2014 Brochure
CST STUDIO SUITE® is a package of tools for designing, simulating and optimizing electromagnetic systems, and is used in leading technology and engineering companies around the world. The three pillars of CST’s products are accuracy, speed and usability. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
Railways Benefit from
Elma Electronic Inc. has created a railway-ready version of its popular Cisco-enabled family of rugged systems designed for the network edge. Designed to meet EN 50155, the new NetSys-5304 can be easily included within railway operations, either by the wayside or within the train itself. Incorporating Cisco’s 5915 Embedded Services Router (ESR) with Advanced Enterprise IOS and Mobile Ready Net capabilities, the NetSys-5304 brings high performance to the network edge. Elma uses its extensive packaging expertise to create a SWaP-optimized system that can be customized for specific user needs. Ken Grob, Director of Embedded Computing at Elma Electronic, noted, “As more data is managed through the cloud, today’s routing appliances need to be faster and smarter. Adding in the rugged requirements of railway applications means these systems also need to endure tough environmental circumstances to provide highly reliable, long-term performance. Our newest rugged network router is designed to do just that.” Central to the ESR is an on-board hardware encryption engine that ensures all data, video and voice is handled securely, without interruption. It also includes radio aware routing, quality of service (QoS) support and mobile ad hock networking as well as dynamic Layer 3 IPV4 and IPV6 routing and a dynamic link exchange protocol. The NetSys-5304 features a fanless design that provides passive conduction-cooling and reduces maintenance needs as well as possible component failures. The robust M12 connectors and an IP67 rating ensure that the system can withstand severe environmental conditions, such as intense shock, vibration and humidity typically found in rugged, mobile applications. The unit comes equipped with front LEDs to quickly verify system status as well as link activity. Pricing for the NetSys-5304 is dependent on configuration.
Accelerating CRCs on
This application note provides some practical examples of calculating a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) on 16 and 32-bit versions of eSi-RISC, and looks at how the user-defined instruction extensions can provide a saving in power, computation cycles and reclaiming memory space. EnSilica Ltd
Model-Based parametric
This test case, based upon a LDO circuit (Fig.1), demonstrates the power of Model-based methodology for Analog circuit sizing and Yield optimization. InfiniScale®
Real-time Trace Reconstruction
Developers are using real-time analysis tools in the development stage, to debug real-time events either not observable during “run-stop” debug sessions, or limited by the requirements of the application; such as inherently not freezable systems like engine control or pace makers. Furthermore, engineers are using real-time analysis tools in their final development stage to do performance tuning and coverage or in the test stage for HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) testing and white box testing. A typical requirement is that the real-time analysis tool must not disturb the real-time behaviour of the system. iSYSTEM AG
Improved Trak models
This paper describes new methods in the Trak charged-particle optics code to find the self-consistent, beam-generated magnetic fields of high-current beams. The modifications are helpful for general work with relativistic electron beams. They are critical for simulations of high-power microwave devices like the relativistic magnetron and the magnetically-insulated line oscillator. Field Precision LLC
Two Major Shifts Impacting
In this whitepaper John Alpine, Spatial VP of R&D, examines the evolution of software development productivity, the point at which ideal productivity is achieved, and what the two major shifts in software productivity will be. Spatial
Designing a converging-beam
Case study: design of a converging beam electron gun to produce a thin, high-current-density electron beam confined in a solenoid focusing system. Field Precision LLC
Agilent Technologies,
Challenge Demonstrate compliance with stringent environmental regulations for more than 1,800 products and 160,000 parts from more than 7,000 suppliers. Solution An automated, enterprise-wide materials compliance data tracking system from Dassault Systemes ENOVIA provides a centralized compliance database on more than 160,000 parts. Benefits Approximately $1 billion in revenues protected by ensuring Agilent’s preparedness for European Union environmental regulations, compliance audits and customer inquiries. Dassault Systèmes
High-flux electron-gun
What factors limit the extracted current from an electron gun? How to use computer codes to design high-current electron guns. Field Precision LLC
4G-mobile pioneer proves
Blue Wonder Communications, headquartered in Dresden, Germany, is a startup striving to become the leading technology developer for fourth-generation cellular networks. XJTAG
Maintaining Repeatable Results
Meeting the timing requirements in a design can be difficult in itself, but producing a design whose timing is 100% repeatable can sometimes seem nearly impossible. Xilinx, Inc
Solving Today's Design
While design security is often thought of in terms of protecting intellectual property (IP), the potential losses extend beyond just the financial. Xilinx, Inc
Creating Virtual Platform
An important use case for modeling of hardware IPs is to use the models to create Virtual Platforms. In a Virtual Platform, models of different IPs are stitched together, to be used to simulate the functionality of entire SoC (rather than mere components of a larger system). Different IPs have varied interface requirements, therefore connecting software models together can become a time consuming and error prone task, especially if the individual models use nonstandard interfaces. CircuitSutra Technologies Pvt Ltd.
Company Brochure
Company Brochure Cirexx Corporation
printLogic Product
printLogic is a batch printing and metadata stamping integration for Matrix which does not require opening or viewing documents in order to print them. One of the most important aspects of printLogic is the ability to metadata stamp documents based on Administrative parameters and control, removing the individual user from the process. With these constraints in place, printLogic helps organizations comply with virtually all Regulatory Agencies. Coastal Logic, Inc.
Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) are a widely needed and used circuitry in todays semiconductor chips. They convert an analog input signal to a proportional digital value, normally represented by a number of bits as binary number. Main properties of an ADC is the number of bits commonly named “resolution” and the speed of the ADC normally measured in samples per second. Cologne Chip AG
Indyme Precisely Identifies
Indyme Solutions, Inc. has been the leader of modern retail communications solutions for the last 20 years. Whether a shopper needs assistance, a cashier requires managerial support, or a security door is unexpectedly opened, relaying information to the appropriate personnel is critical to ensure a rapid response. Managing multiple communication channels is no simple task—it requires a robust central communications platform with reliable hardware backing. Corelis
Development of Microphone
Our customer wanted to develop a MEMS microphone preamp ASIC. The sensor process variations were limiting the yield of his microphone solution and the existing ASICs provided no mechanism to change the parameters of the ASIC to remove the non idealities of the sensor. The Customer came to Cosmic looking for an ASIC solution to calibrate the sensor variations and maintain constant preamp output for a given external input despite variation in the sensor due to manufacturing process. Cosmic understood the requirements, selected the appropriate technology node and provided a solution to meet the stringent requirements. Cosmic Circuits
The Perils of Aging Terminal
Data on host systems is often the most sensitive on the network. Terminal emulators on the desktop provide access to these systems, but many organizations are still using older products, deployed using best practices from many years ago. Attachmate Corporation.
Safeguarding Cardholder
In 2004, the major credit card companies—including Visa, MasterCard, and American Express—joined forces to create the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS). The PCI DSS applies to all companies that store, process, or transmit cardholder account data. Its purpose: to ensure data privacy for consumers via strict security controls across the industry. Attachmate Corporation.
Creating Solutions with
Because the large majority of corporate data resides on host systems, organizations must make that data available to the desktop in order to retain a competitive advantage. The increased demand for host access coincides with a corresponding business trend of buying and customizing off-the-shelf applications, rather than the time-consuming and risky process of building solutions from scratch. Attachmate Corporation.
“iWave announced its
“iWave announced its i.MX53 SOM on the same day Freescale announced the availability of its i.MX53 SoC” Bangalore, 1st March 2011, INDIA - iWave Systems Technologies Pvt. Ltd.,   iWave Systems Technologies, a leading embedded design house Headquartered in Bangalore announces a High end, Low cost, Low power SOM based on Freescale’s i.MX53 (ARM Cortex-A8) Multimedia application processor on the same day Freescale announced its i.MX53 processor development platform availability. This I.MX53 SOM module will support the major operating system including Windows Embedded Compact 7/CE 6.0 R3, Android 2.1, Linux and QNX/VxWorks OS platforms. This module is iWave's latest addition to its growing family of multimedia focused products offering high performance processing with a high degree of functional integration, aimed at the growing Automotive Infotainment, Telemedicine, HMI & Display based cluster markets. A dedicated video processor offloads the main core by performing video 1080p decoding and 720p encoding for multimedia applications like playing movies and monitoring cameras.“To speedup the product development at low cost, we have designed this module in MXM-3 form factor. Complex part of the design is implemented in this module and have brought all the signals to the MXM connector, so that anybody can buy this module and quickly develop their own application specific carrier card," said Abdullah Khan – Director Engineering. Alternatively, iWave can also support in developing custom design around its i.MX53 module The key features of this module are i.MX53 / 1GHz processor includes 3D and 2D graphics, 1080i/p video processing, on board 1GB/2GB DDR2 RAM, 8GB eMMC4.41 Flash, 16MB SPI Flash for Boot, 10/100Mbps Ethernet PHY, Micro SD, UART and USB OTG. The module supports MXM-3 form factor of size 85mm x 85mm and support MXM3 edge connector for IO expansion to support Dual LCD, Dual Camera, USB2.0, SATAII, SD/SDIO, CAN, MLB, ESAI, SSI, SPDIF, Video-In, TVout, SPI, I2C, UART and various IO interfaces. Commenting on this new module launch, Mr. Vivek Tyagi, Country Sales Manager, Freescale Semiconductor India Pvt. Ltd., mentioned, “iWave Systems Technologies is a Proactive Design Partner of Freescale Semiconductor. iWave has been involved in bringing out SOM and Reference Designs on Freescale i.MX Platform. The long standing relationship has been beneficial to many of our product customers as iWave reference designs have shortened their cycle time”. iW-RainboW-G11M SOM image: Features/Specifications: Processor: i.MX53 ARM Cortex A8 CPU RAM: 1GB/2GB DDR2 ROM: 8GB eMMC Flash, 16MB SPI Flash On Board Peripherals: 10/100Mbps Ethernet PHY, RS232 Serial port, I2C header, CAN header, USB OTG connector, Micro SD Connector, JTAG Header, On Board Power Connector 314-pin MXM -3 Edge Connector: UART x 3, I2C x 3, SDIO x 3, SPI x 2, Audio SSI x 3, CAN x 1, MLB x 1, SPDIF x 1, LVDS x 2, SATA x 1, Parallel RGB Out x 1,Video In/CSI x 1, USB HS Host x 1, USB OTG x 1, 17 GPIOs, ESAI x 1, Ethernet RMII PHY Signal Interface x1 Form factor: 85mm X 85mm For details, please visit iWave Systems Technologies Pvt.Ltd
Building a 3.3 - 3.8
This article presents the design of a 3.3 - 3.8 GHz LNA suitable for IEEE 802.16a WiMAX customer premise equipment (CPE) and base transceiver stations (BTS), built on inexpensive FR4 copper laminate epoxy glass board material using the Avago Technologies ATF-54143 E-pHEMT (enhancement-mode pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor). Avago Technologies
Aava Mobile was founded in 2009 by a team of engineering wizards with a strong background in mobile phone development who wanted to build an opensource mobile device platform for the OEM/ODM market. Aava Mobile’s open devices harness the creativity of developer communities and provide the flexibility to OEM/ODMs and mobile operators to incorporate their own user interface, content and services to differentiate their devices from competitors. AWR Corporation
Legrand Endorses AXIEM
Impressive Performance - Speed of Simulation and Accuracy of Results - More than 10x Better Than Existing Solution AWR Corporation
Sirona cuts development
Sirona products are to be found in all fields of treatment and activities in a modern dental practice. These include, in addition to treatment equipment and instrumentation, the business division CAD/CAM Systems (production of ceramic inlays, onlays, partial crowns etc) and imaging systems with its products for X-Ray diagnosis. Sirona, as a system manufacturer, has the ability to combine products from the various business divisions – an example being CAD/CAM-Systems with 3D X-ray tube devices. The Imaging Systems products range from intra-oral x-ray devices such as the Heliodent Plus range as shown in Figure 1, panorama x-ray devices (Orthopos range) to 3D devices (Galileos range). CST - Computer Simulation Technology
Microdul gains deeper
Microdul produces proximity sensor chips that can be used with remote sensing plates. Changes in plate capacitance are detected by a digital auto-calibrating algorithm. An approaching human finger typically causes a switching operation. This principle is demonstrated in Figure 2. The capacitive switch can be used for many non-contact applications. The main challenge is to develop a sensor which can reliably distinguish between intentional switching operation and environmental interference. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
Quality healthcare aimed at prevention is a trend that is rapidly gaining momentum. Medical devices that capture vital parameters and possess multiple connectivity features enable a seamless flow of information between caregivers and patients. Patient vitals can be located in a centralized repository, which can be accessed and processed by authorized personnel. Home healthcare is booming because of an increase in the aging population, rising healthcare costs, and demand of quality healthcare from remote locations. Technological innovations in the field of medical electronics and communication can drive the cost of healthcare. Applications for health at home include chronic disease management, post operative care, fitness, general wellness etc. Cypress Semiconductor Corp.
Designing Next-Generation
With the trend of increased adoption of consumer electronics in the automotive industry, the design of the center console is undergoing a major shift. This article covers some of the emerging trends which are finding increasing adoption in the center console. These technologies not only provide a seamless human machine interface for when the passenger uses a cell phone or the car navigation unit, but also enable automobile manufacturers to save money, improve reliability, and create a shift in the aesthetics of the car. Cypress Semiconductor Corp.
Comparison of 2.4-GHz
With the penetration of Wireless technology into the human interface device (HID) market, more and more sophisticated HID products are now coming out in the market with integrated wireless technology (wireless keyboards, wireless mice, etc). Often, developers are limited in their options: follow a popular wireless standard like Bluetooth or develop a proprietary protocol optimized for their application. While wireless standards provide the benefit of interoperability, they also introduce complexity and overhead that an application may not require, resulting in a higher system cost. On the other hand, proprietary protocol gives developers flexibility to customize applications at the expense of requiring developers to take on the development process. Cypress Semiconductor Corp.
Acme Cellular_062509.pdf
As a result of inaccurate forecasting, Acme Cellular’s worldwide market share of cellular phone sales was declining. Our product portfolio included five different models of cellular phones (AC-1 through AC-5). Each model is available in 6 different configurations for various languages and service providers. We also have three suppliers for Flash memory devices: Samsung, Toshiba, and Micron. Inventory control, for both unprogrammed (blank) and pre-programmed Flash memories, is critical, as more than 90 different part numbers must be generated and managed. Compounding these forecasting problems were shipping delays due to last- minute code changes. Data I/O Corporation
In the context of electronic product manufacturing, mission-critical applications are those that are vital to the functioning of an overall system. If the application fails, there are typically undesirable results which might jeopardize human lives or may cause significant damage or loss. Examples of these applications are the brake or air bag system in your car, the chip inside a heart monitoring system, or the chip inside the circuitry that controls the navigation system of an airplane. Even though these are dramatic examples of mission-critical applications, our daily lives are full of similar applications with very low to no tolerance for failure. Data I/O Corporation
dw-2000TM HLVS
dw-2000 HLVS is the gateway to advanced features such as electrical layout extraction and network comparison. As is true with all dw-2000 modules, HLE and LVS are well-integrated with the dw-2000 programming environment (GPE) and easily customized to address a wide variety of problems.With these modules, you can easily implement extraction rules for any technology or application. Design Workshop, Inc.
New Manufacturing Techniques
Over the last few years the optical component industry has embarked on a planar waveguide revolution. The basis of planar waveguide technology is to create optical waveguides on substrates utilizing manufacturing processes similar to those used in the semiconductor industry. The benefits of this technology are high yield scalable manufacturing, a platform for further optical integration and improved quality over manual assembly techniques. Planar technology is currently being used to manufacture a variety of components including AWG,VOA, OADM and SOA. Design Workshop, Inc.
Bay Talkitec Combines
Because customization, personalization, and convenience are increasingly important to today's customers, BayTalkitec (BTT) decided to create a "Video Yellow Pages" application, which would respond to an SMS message by pushing a video to the sender's 3G mobile phone over a video call. Dialogic
Beijing MXTelecom Develops
Beijing MXTelecom integrated high-capacity Dialogic® boards and Dialogic® HMP Software into its CTI solutions, including its IP Call Center and TICQ platform. One of the IP Call Center installations that used Dialogic HMP Software not only provided seamless PBX-IP connectivity for customers, but also reduced media processing implementation costs by about 60%. Dialogic
CCMENA Develops Advanced
CCMENA designed an integrated IVR, CRM, and contact center solution that would allow the international mobile satellite service provider Thuraya to manage its customer care operations more efficiently. Dialogic
An Introduction to Multimedia
Combining video with voice and text applications to create multimedia services is an important development in the worldwide communications marketplace. Adding video promises to provide a robust new revenue stream for service providers and greatly enhance business solutions, including the contact center. This paper explores market segment trends, multimedia services, key multimedia standards, and the technical components needed to deliver multimedia services effectively. A section on Dialogic and multimedia discusses some of the Dialogic® products that can help make the move to multimedia faster and more cost effective. Dialogic
An Introduction to Multimedia
Combining video with voice and text applications to create multimedia services is an important development in the worldwide communications marketplace. Adding video promises to provide a robust new revenue stream for service providers and greatly enhance business solutions, including the contact center. This paper explores market segment trends, multimedia services, key multimedia standards, and the technical components needed to deliver multimedia services effectively. A section on Dialogic and multimedia discusses some of the Dialogic® products that can help make the move to multimedia faster and more cost effective. Dialogic
Choosing a Dialogic®
This paper supplies high-level and detail comparisons and a set of scenarios to help you decide whether an appliance gateway, gateway subsystem, or HMP interface boards are the appropriate option for an environment and for a particular set of development resources and deployment needs. Dialogic
Implementing Efficient
Implementing Efficient Split-Radix FFTs in FPGAs  Radix-2 and Radix-4 FFTs are common  Many applications benefit from other lengths  OFDM Transceiver, Digital Video Broadcasts, and software defined radios often require FFTs that aren’t a radix-2 or radix-4 length  Split-radix simplifies the logic for these applications  Common Split-radix algorithms are Cooley-Tukey, Kolbe- Parks, and Good-Thomas Dillon Engineering Inc
Improved Processing Performance
Published in "Metering International Issue" in 4-2008. Using more advanced system design tools for embedded processors is just the start of a new era of system development for any measurement devices. With powerful processors like Blackfin and SHARC, designers can overcome development boundaries and realise highly functional devices rapidly and even to full series of production. This article describes some examples of “idea to final product” with these powerful new design methodologies. Schmid Engineering AG
Rapid Prototyping für
Erschienen im Megalink 8-08 / Sept 2008 Einen Prototyp schnell und wirtschaftlich aufzubauen, gewinnt zunehmend an Bedeutung, denn die «Time-to-Market» ist häufig sehr entscheidend für den Erfolg des Produktes am Markt. Mit einem modularen Hardware-System und einer selbst dokumentierenden grafischen Programmierumgebung lassen sich mess- oder regeltechnische Aufgaben einfach und schnell implementieren und testen. Schmid Engineering AG
High Performance Collection
A database is an ideal medium for collecting and analyzing coverage. At Oracle, we marry our Oracle database with coverage collection of our verification, and then use SQL to extract coverage metrics on-demand. This presentation outlines an intuitive scheme for database collection of coverage, and presents data showing the scalability and the high bandwidth this scheme is able to handle. Oracle
[EN] "How do you qualify
The significant burden of parasitics on the performance of post-layout verification forces design engineers to use additional techniques in order to match the requirements of next generation designs. A real gap appears between layout extraction and circuit simulation when adding layout parasitics into the flow. A review of the existing techniques as well as a merciless way to doubtlessly validate netlist reduction and circuit extraction are presented in this paper. EDXACT SA
Specsavers: Support and
Specsavers has worked with Fujitsu across every aspect of its business for over ten years. For example, Fujitsu procures, commissions and installs every single piece of hardware in each Specsavers store, from EPOS terminals to printers to servers. Fujitsu Microelectronics
Imperial Tobacco Virtualised
The Imperial Tobacco and Fujitsu teams participated in a three-day workshop to assess and fine tune the project requirements. From the outset, there were a number of criteria that had to be met if the project was to be successful. Fujitsu Microelectronics
Data Channel Amp
A mixed-signal design team at a large IDM redesigned a signal amplifier IC for an electromechanical device. The designers retargeted the chip to run faster on a smaller process node. The new chip was no longer housed in a package; instead, the bare die was solder bumped and attached directly to the device in a mobile form factor. Gradient Design Automation Inc.
Fast and reliable compact
This paper presents a new approach dedicated to the compact modeling of organic transistors. Usual approach based on silicon device experiences is to develop a compact model based on strong physical assumptions. In the frame of organic electronics, this approach suffers from two main disadvantages, which are the time needed to develop a physical model and the fact that materials and device architectures are still submitted to many changes. InfiniScale®
Design of ST planar integrated
IC Design is driven by two simultaneous trends: miniaturization of microelectronics technology, and telecommunication market expansion . When considered at a user level, these trends seem to be compatible: by making devices smaller, integration of a larger number of functionalities in your smart phone is made possible and thus boosts the development of the telecom market. InfiniScale®
Nonlinear modelling for
This paper addresses analog/RF IC verification. We present significant improvements for statistical analysis at a very early stage in the design phase. First a new IC performances black-box modelling approach is presented, and then illustrated with application on different 65nm IP designs and validated with comparison of mathematical models to spice simulations. Finally, a model-based statistical analysis is presented. InfiniScale®
Achieving GHz Speed in
For many products designed with today’s high-performance integrated circuits, BGA socketing systems are an essential option during the design, testing, and/or production phases of a new product development process. Ironwood Electronics
Not all ISO 9001:2000
To reduce costs and focus on core capabilities, companies today routinely outsource the manufacturing of electronic modules and adapters Ironwood Electronics
Practical GALS
As multi-core SoCs continue to evolve, their interconnect architectures have become the major design challenge. Implementing Quality of Service (QoS) in order to share access to tightly-coupled memories; coordinating error detection and handle protocols; debugging data flow for concurrent processors; as well as fundamental challenges such as SoC timing closure are all effected by the level of interoperability the interconnect provides between IP cores and external memory.. Sonics, Inc.
Infotainment systems help drivers navigate safely to their destination while entertaining passengers, and are no longer limited to high end vehicles: emerging driver assistance automotive systems are now making their way into the mainstream market. The front LCD displays need to dynamically switch from the GPS display to one of many camera views, or even a combination of images captured by several cameras housed around the vehicle. Lattice Semiconductor Corp.
Nationwide Mobile License
Nationwide Mobile License Plate Recognition System. Mango DSP Inc
WDC Products Partners Overview
WDC Products Partners Overview The Western Design Center, Inc.
CDN Live EMEA 2011: FlexRayTM
Presents a case study on how the Open Verification Methodology (OVM) was successfully applied to implement a SystemVerilog simulation-based conformance test environment for next generation FlexRayTM 3.0 Automotive Communications System controllers. Verilab
CVRx is developing a second generation system to provide Baroreflex Activation Therapy. This system, called XR-1, will be evaluated to determine its efficacy and safety. After using IBM® RATIONAL® DOORS® as the requirements management engineering platform for about a year, it was replaced with Integrity, a PTC product. CVRx selected PTC for its flexibility, integration of multiple disciplines in a single solution and capacity to provide comprehensive traceability between artifacts. By using Integrity, CVRx has compressed development cycles, improved productivity, mitigated risk, and streamlined regulatory and internal reporting. MKS Inc.
Fiserv Insurance Solutions, a unit of Fiserv, Inc. (Nasdaq: FISV), specializes in progressive software and outsourcing solutions for the insurance industry. Hundreds of carriers, managing general agents and third-party administrators, rely on Fiserv for policy, claims, billing and reinsurance administration as well as point-of-sale solutions and straightthrough processing. More than 3,000 clients use the company’s market-leading financial and compliance solutions. Fiserv Insurance Solutions recently received six awards at the 12th Annual ACORD Awards ceremony, and received Certification Awards in the three industry sectors overseen by ACORD – Reinsurance, Property and Casualty, and Life and Annuities. MKS Inc.
Swisslog is a global provider of integrated logistic solutions for warehouses, distribution centers and hospitals. Their comprehensive portfolio ranges from building complex warehouses and distribution centers including Swisslog’s software, in-house logistics solutions for hospitals as well as software and consulting services in the field of supply chain management. MKS Inc.
Connecting Multi-Source
Connecting Multi-Source IP to a Standard On-Chip Architecture Palmchip Corp.
Burlington Resources
As one of the world's leading producers of oil and gas, the company profiled in this case employs over 2,000 people worldwide, and relies heavily on geological and geophysical software to support its production activities. Open iT, Inc.
High Availability and
Provides strategies for achieving high Perforce server availability and minimizing data loss in the event of a disaster. Perforce Software Inc.
A Study on the Suitability
Featured Paper by A. Shetty, K. J. Vinoy & S. B. Krupanidhi

As interest in the electromagnetic spectrum expands towards the infrared and terahertz range, the distinct advantages of using semiconductors instead of metals for plasmonic applications must be understood. Plasmonic resonances in gold (Au) and indium nitride (InN) gratings are studied, in the terahertz (λ=30µm) regime. The electromagnetic properties of Au and InN are described by the Drude model. InN, has a lower plasma resonance frequency of fp ≈ 52 x 1012 Hz (Far IR) as compared to that of Au which has fp ≈ 2.18 x 1015 Hz (optical range). This leads to InN plasmonic structures demonstrating a greater confinement of surface waves to the interface and greater field enhancement (~1.4 times) as compared to Au in the THz regime.
Analysis of Super Imaging
Featured Paper by D. Grabovičkić, J.C. González, P. Benítez & J.C. Miñano

Negative Refractive Lens (NRL) has shown that an optical system can produce images with details below the classic Abbe diffraction limit. This optical system transmits the electromagnetic fields, emitted by an object plane, towards an image plane producing the same field distribution in both planes. Recently, two devices with positive refraction, the Maxwell Fish Eye lens (MFE) (Leonhardt et al. 2000) and the Spherical Geodesic Waveguide (SGW) (Minano et al. 2011) have been claimed to break the diffraction limit using positive refraction with a different meaning. In these cases, it has been considered the power transmission from a point source to a point receptor, which falls drastically when the receptor is displaced from the focus by a distance much smaller than the wavelength. Although these systems can detect displacements up to lambda/500, they cannot be compared to the NRL, since the SGW deals only with point source and drain.
Calibration of MHD Flow
Featured Paper by S. Sahu, R. P .Bhattachryay & E. R. Kumar

There is limited option for non-intrusive flow measurement of liquid metals at high temperature. Liquid metal flowing in a conduit along with the transverse magnetic field induces emf in the liquid metal. The emf developed; which has linear dependency on flow velocity; can be used for flow velocity estimation. In case of conducting conduit the emf can be measured at the conduit wall. The main hindrance with this technique is the calibration. The induced emf depends upon the thermo-physical parameters like electrical conductivity, viscosity of the liquid metal as well as the electrical conductivity of the conduit wall. The flow meter calibrated with a fluid at some temperature will not behave in the same way with other liquid metal or at another temperature. Usage of flow meter with different fluid necessitates calibration with that fluid at required temperature; which increase the cost of usage. In this paper, an effort has been made, using numerical methods, to eliminate the repeated calibration work for different fluid at different temperature.
Complex K-Bands Calculation
Featured Paper by G. Parisi, P. Zilio & F. Romanato

We present a Finite Element Method (FEM) to calculate the complex valued k(ω) dispersion curves of a photonic crystal slab in presence of both dispersive and lossy materials. In particular the method can be exploited to study plasmonic crystal slabs. We adopt Perfectly Matched Layers (PMLs) in order to truncate the open boundaries of the model, including their related anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors in the weak form of Helmholtz's eigenvalue equation.
Designing of End-winding
Featured Paper by M. Wei, S. Grossman & J. Speck

The job of designing end-winding corona protection (ECP) system is one of the very important and complex phases for insulation configuration of high voltage rotating machines. This complexity stems on one hand from the highly nonlinear characteristics of the ECP material and on the other hand from the coupled multiphysics phenomena of the involved performance evaluation. Simulation based ECP design is considered as a time-saving approach and finite element method was adopted in order to understand and solve this problematic. In this work a simulation tool with COMSOL Multiphysics was developed to calculate the electrical-thermal behavior of the ECP system. Compare to experimental approach, design process is simplified and the results are presented intuitively. 2D and 3D modeling were applied.
Electric Field Density
Featured Paper by N.S. Lawand, J. van Driel & P.J. French

Cochlear Implants are implantable devices which bypasses the non-functional inner ear and directly stimulates the hearing nerve with electric currents thus enabling deaf people to experience sound again. Implant electrode array design is limited in electrode count, due to their large size in accordance to scala tympani (ST) with restrictions for deeper insertion in ST thus depriving access to low frequency auditory neurons. Silicon semiconductor technology provides the fabrication of advanced high-density CI electrode arrays with more stimulation sites, integration of electronics, reduced size, multiplexing and specific site selection as per frequency. In this paper we present the simulation results for the three different electrode configuration of our proposed design. Electric filed density distribution near the stimulation site is studied by COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2a.
Electro Thermal Performance
Featured Paper by C. Thiagarajan & V. Gnanasekar

Cancer causes significant human deaths. Radiofrequency ablation is an encouraging procedure for cancer treatment. The objective is to demonstrate the multiphysics simulation methodology. This paper summarizes the problem , governing equations, methodology, assumptions, simulation results and discussion related to the thermal performance prediction of radio frequency ablation on a homogeneous tissue model. The electromagnetic interaction with biological tissue and thermal ablation coupling are highlighted. he main problem addressed in this paper is the prediction of temperature distribution of biological tissue due to Radio frequency energy of electrodes. his is critical to estimate and monitor the procedure to ablate only the defective tissues as identified by the physician. The simulation potential for the development safe procedure planning and protocol is highlighted.
Electromagnetic Characterization
Featured Paper by J. Osorio Moreno, M. Pullia & C. Priano

Resistive magnets are one of the principal components of ion medical accelerator systems used in heavy ion cancer treatment. To fulfill medical requirements, like the size of irradiation field and an uniform dose distribution, some magnets of the transport beam line may require large aperture and a large region where the magnetic field is within specifications (good field region). After a validation benchmark between COMSOL simulations and measurements of a dipole magnet used in the CNAO facility, COMSOL Multiphysics has been used to characterize the magnetic field quality of a very large 90° bending magnet. A stiffening frame has then been foreseen to preserve the mechanical rigidity of the magnet and its impact on the field quality has been investigated
Computational Modeling
Featured Paper by A. González-Suárez, M. Trujillo, J. Koruth, A. D'Avila & E. Berjano

Previous studies proposed using bipolar radiofrequency ablation across two catheters placed on opposing surfaces of the ventricular wall to create transmural lesions. 2D and 3D models were built and solved with COMSOL Multiphysics software. With these models, it was possible to study the temperature distribution and lesion geometry (Figure), to compare the potential of two ways of applying electrical currents (bipolar mode, BM, vs. sequential unipolar, SUM) and to investigate the effect of other factors such as the ventricular wall thicknesses and catheter misalignment have never been studied in detail. Our results suggest that BM is in general more effective than SUM in achieving transmurality through the ventricular wall. These results could improve the safety and performance of these procedures.
Coupled Electromagnetic
Featured Paper by C. Thiagarajan & J. Anto

Conventional heating of material wastes energy during heating due to inherent radiation, conduction and convection based heating mechanism. Alternate efficient heating methods are actively researched for improved efficiency. Radio frequency based electromagnetic heating is increasingly used for efficient heating in place of conventional heating. This requires coupling of electromagnetic and heat transfer for performance evaluation of an RF applicator. A dielectric disk is considered for heating performance evaluation. The methodology, material properties used and simulation results are reported. The uniformity of heat application or electromagnetic energy distribution is used as metric to evaluate the efficiency. The virtual design and heating results are reported. The multiphysics coupling and parametric modeling capability of COMSOL is highlighted.
Design Optimization of
Featured Paper by P. Kumar , S. Kalra & A. Marwaha

The optimized design of a waveguide applicator has been proposed for superficial microwave hyperthermia using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a. In microwave hyperthermia cancer treatment body tissue is exposed to high temperatures using external and internal heating devices. Non-Invasive or external hyperthermia is used to treat tumors that are in or just below the skin (superficial). Non-invasive hyperthermia systems using waveguide applicators are less traumatic to patients. The dimensions of the waveguide is optimally selected to focus the energy more specifically over the tumor region. The 3D modeling of the waveguide applicator is performed using different dielectrics and the performance is verified by analyzing the resistive heating and temperature distributions in muscle like phantom.
Determination of the
Featured Paper by Y. Davletshin & J.C. Kumaradas

The optical scattering and absorption of gold nanorods (GNRs) depends on its size, shape, and surroundings. This dependence is due to both intrinsic and extrinsic effects. A good understanding of this dependence is needed for applications of GNRs in photo-thermal therapy, optical and opto-acoustic imaging, biosensing, and other photonic areas. Extrinsic effects are caused by the production of localized and surface plasmons and are well understood through Mie theory for spherical particles and Maxwell’s equations for arbitrary objects. Intrinsic effects become prominent at the nano-scale, when the cluster size becomes comparable or smaller than the bulk mean free path of electrons between collisions and additional scattering of the conduction electrons from the cluster surface occur. The addition of this scattering will shorten the mean free path between collisions and increase the damping constant.
Electromagnetic Field
Featured Paper by S. Cambon & I. Bogdanov

Non-conventional hydrocarbon resources become more and more challenging object for energy producing companies throughout the world. Being already known and long-explored method, the electromagnetically (EM) assisted recovery constitutes a promising idea of technology for deposits of such a kind. COMSOL has been used recently for modeling the thermal multiphase flow through porous media in the different frameworks [1], in-situ resistive heating field in a bitumen reservoir [2], etc. Although this experience demonstrated that some problems related to petroleum applications can be resolved successfully using fully-integrated models, the modeling of the real non-conventional fluids and their properties evolution requires considerable efforts and specific knowledge application. Nevertheless the multiphysics environment of COMSOL makes attractive to model phenomena of particular interest in parallel to petroleum related computations. The main advantage of this approach is to implement quasi-independent numerical models to different physical phenomena described each by its own equations and taking place in corresponding time and space regions [3]. In practice the total number of such models constituting a complex problem is limited by the computational power and the type of coupling between them may be a user-defined option. The main purpose of our current work is to develop an efficient COMSOL-based model for radio-frequency EM field distribution inside heterogeneous saturated porous media. Such a model can be a promising tool, for instance, in petroleum applications. As a successful example we can mention is the EM heating method for in-situ upgrading which can be found in [4]. Relatively simple geometrical configurations have been used to validate our models using comparison to available and developed analytical solutions. In particular for two different versions of the simulation, the accuracy and convergence rate of numerical EM field solutions for different grids and element orders have been checked. Then the models have been applied in more complex multidomain multiphysics framework of field-scale recovery problem. The examples of EM field computations are presented with detailed analysis of numerical solution accuracy and computational performance of the model. The advantages of the new model (where both elements choice and solver features have been explored) are demonstrated.
Going beyond Axisymmetry:
Featured Paper by Y.A. Urzhumov, N.I. Landy, C. Ciraci & D.R. Smith

Linear wave propagation through inhomogeneous structures of size R≫λ (Fig.1) is a computationally challenging problem, in particular when using finite element methods, due to the steep increase of the number of degrees of freedom as a function of R/λ. Fortunately, when the geometry of the problem possesses symmetries, one may choose an appropriate basis in which the stiffness matrix of the discretized problem is block-diagonal. A particular scenario is the case of a cylindrically-symmetric geometry, where an appropriate basis is the set of cylindrical waves with all possible azimuthal numbers (m). Each of the excited cylindrical harmonics propagate through the structure independently of all other harmonics, and therefore the fields associated with that harmonic can be found by solving an essentially two-dimensional PDE problem in the ρ-z (half)-plane. The cylindrical waves have a prescribed dependence on the azimuthal angle variable (φ), hence the name – 2.5D electromagnetics. This novel approach is applied to the problem of cloaking and wave scattering off a spherical nanoparticle on metallic and/or dielectric substrates.
Heat-Sink Solution through
Featured Paper by N. Badi & R. Mekala

Thermally conducting but electrically insulating materials are needed for heat-sink LED lighting applications. We report on a cost effective and innovative method based on creating core-shell nanoparticles in polymer with aluminum (Al) nanoparticles as the high thermal conductivity core and ultrathin aluminum oxide (Al₂O₃) as a capping shell. The solid oxide shell around the Al core prevents agglomeration of Al nanoparticles. A coupled COMSOL heat transfer and AC/DC modules were used in the simulation. The mean effective thermal conductivity seems to exceed the value of 100W/m·K with an electrical permittivity of 52 at 12% Al-Al₂O₃ core-shell nanoparticles loading in a polyvinylidene fluoride polymer nanocomposite. These results are considered outstating but they need to be validated experimentally.
Magnetotelluric Response
Featured Paper by D. Rizzello, P. Canepa & E. Armadillo

Topographic effects on magnetotelluric responses may be severe on rugged terrains. Finite elements simulation is a valuable tool to quantify this effect, due to its capability to match real morphologies. To do the estimate of the distortion, the AC/DC Module of COMSOL has been employed, using a model of homogeneous resistivity on which a DEM (Digital Elevation Model) profile of the Deep Freeze Range (Victoria Land, Antarctica) has been superimposed. Then, the MT responses at several surface sites has been computed.
Model of an Interdigitated
Featured Paper by E. Bianchi, F. Bellati, E. Rollo, G. Dubini & C. Guiducci

A model of a cell counter sensor based on Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) has been implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics. The cell counter is a silicon-based microdevice consisting in 3D electrodes placed in a wide microchannel: cells flow in the microchannel through the electrodes to be detected. The model allows to evaluate the functionality of the device depending on geometrical parameters and material properties, cutting down experimental time. Two and three electrodes configurations have been tested, focusing on the variation of impedance due to the presence or absence of particles (polystyrene beads or cells). The resulting signal variation allows us to verify and quantify the efficiency of the device.
Modeling Magnetic Configurations
Featured Paper by S. Khushrushahi, T.A. Hatton & M. Zahn

Magnetic separation of magnetic liquid phases/particles from non-magnetic liquid phases/particles are needed for pplications such as cleaning up oil spills by separating oil and water liquid phases or separating magnetic materials from non-magnetic materials in biomedical and microfluidic applications. Magnetic fluids (also called ferrofluids), in a magnetic field, experience a magnetic force density. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to show that magnetic energy density of a particular permanent magnet configuration is a more intuitive way of understanding how a magnetic fluid moves in a magnetic field. As a result, a novel magnetic separation technique was developed, using permanent magnet edges and Halbach magnet arrays, that separated a variable magnetic volume fraction from a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic liquid phases.
Optimization of Artificial
Featured Paper by J. Jadidian, M. Zahn, N. Lavesson, O. Widlund & K. Borg

This paper presents an optimized combination of artificial diffusion techniques to stabilize a drift dominated streamer discharge model which includes COMSOL Multiphysics’ Transport of Diluted Species modules for positive ion, negative ion, and electron charge densities, coupled through the Electrostatic module. A Thermal Conduction and Convection module is responsible for the heat transfer in the model. Optimal 2D axisymmetric and 3D mesh schemes are also introduced to effectively solve the numerical problem. Several combinations of streamline diffusions and Crosswind diffusion with different tuning parameters are applied to the charge continuity and the thermal equations with different mesh element size distributions to determine the ideal approach.
Optimizing Performance
Featured Paper by J. Kocbach, K. Folgerø, L. Mohn & O. Brix

The design challenge for hermostimulation equipment is to get a combination of high electric field strength and high emperature within the muscle tissue without causing pain or skin burns. In the present work, COMSOL Multiphysics is used to simulate the temperature distribution and electric field distribution within body tissue for varying body composition and varying design parameters of hethermostimulation equipment. COMSOL LiveLink™ for MATLAB® is used in order to do script based parametric analysis, sensitivity analysis and iterative optimization from MATLAB®. The present work has shown how the multiphysics approach gives information regarding design choices for thermostimulation equipment, and relative effectiveness of thermostimulation equipment for patients with different body composition.
Passive Microsensor Based
Featured Paper by D.A. Sanz Becerra, E.A. Unigarro Calpa, J. Osma & F. Segura

A scheme for inductive wireless powering and readout of passive LC sensor is presented. The sensor’s inductor is designed as a planar square coil and is used as the power receiving component. The capacitor is connected directly to the inductor and it was designed as an interdigital capacitor. With a transmitting coil (coupling antenna), an electromagnetic field is generated which couples with the sensor, affecting the impedance of the coupling antenna. This work studies the effects of permittivity variations in a capacitive transducer. All the fabrication and characterization processes were carried out at the clean room of the Universidad de los Andes. The design and the simulation of the wireless passive micro-sensor based on LC resonators were made using COMSOL-4.2a.
Prototype Probe Development
Featured Paper by T. V. Shyam, B. S. V. G. Sharma & J. N. Kayal

Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) play a prominent role in contributing power for the Nuclear Energy Programme in India. In 540MWe type PHWR reactors, there are horizontally placed Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) tubes for injecting poison into the moderator to clamp down the nuclear power under trip conditions. The Horizontally placed LISS pipes are placed perpendicular to the horizontal Coolant Channels in the inter lattice positions as shown in Figure 1. The gap between the coolant channel and the LISS tube is critical considering the possibility of fretting damage in the event of closing of this gap. The Coolant channels consists of two co-axial tubes called Pressure tube (inner) and Calandria Tube (outer). The gap between LISS tube and calandria tube cannot be measured directly as the whole core of the reactor is enclosed in a vessel called Calandria vessel. Only easy access to the core is through the bore of the pressure tube for employing any inspection technique for measuring the gap. As the probing medium has to penetrate the pressure tube and calandria tube barriers, Electromagnetic technique only appears to be feasible for the inspection. Remote Field Pulsed Eddy Current technique is proposed for this measurement. The remote field originates from the exciter coil kept in the bore of the pressure tube and propagates through the outside metallic barriers and makes a re-entry into the pressure tube approximately at a axial distance of 2 diameters of pressure tube. The search coil is used at this location to pickup the prominent Remote Field. The pick up signals are further Digitally Signal Processed to gather information of the gap between LISS tube and calandrai tube. COMSOL Multiphysics software was used to map the poynting vector to guage the re-entry location of the remote field. The Poynting Vector mapping is shown in Figure 2. Further it is also simulated to know the order of the voltage to be picked by the remote pick up coil. The Figure 3 shows pick up voltage simulated for one turn.
Pulsed Eddy Current Probe
Featured Paper by V. Babbar, P. Whalen & T. Krause

Surface breaking cracks in conductive structures can be detected by conventional eddy current techniques. However, it is very difficult to detect inner layer defects in multilayered conductive structures either by conventional eddy current or ultrasonic methods. The transient/pulsed eddy current (PEC) technology can potentially overcome these limitations and is being developed for detection of deeper defects in multilayered aluminum structures [1-2]. An earlier work [3] successfully employed COMSOL Multiphysics, the finite element (FE) modeling software, to develop and optimize a reflection type probe where the driving and pickup coils were coupled coaxially. The probe could detect defects underneath a 3.6 mm thick aluminum plate and there was good agreement with experiment. However, it was not very effective in detecting inner layer cracks that originated at a ferrous fastener, as typically found in airplane wing structures. This necessitated the development of a different probe design. The present work describes the new probe design, which consists of two pickup coils, connected in differential mode, on either side of the central driver, as shown in Figure 1. The work involves modeling of a PEC probe and its optimization by varying geometry and other circuit parameters of the driver-pickup coil combination. The modeled differential pickup signal for a crack of length 9.0 mm, width 0.25 mm, and four different crack depths are shown in Figure 2. It reveals that, although the signal decreases with increase in crack depth, the probe can potentially detect a crack at a depth of 4.0 mm below an aluminum plate. In summary, the COMSOL software proved to be useful in presenting a visualization of diffusion of magnetic flux through the ferrous fastener and its interaction with the surrounding defect region, which led to development of an optimum probe design including appropriate location of the sensing coils in the probe.
Simulation and Analysis
Featured Paper by S.M. Dutta & A.Reiderman

Waterflooding and steam-flooding are used worldwide for EOR. Recently, CO2-flooding has attracted global attention as a means of EOR as well as for carbon capture and sequestration. These processes cause significant changes over time in the fluid composition of oil reservoirs. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a borehole transient electromagnetic (TEM) system that can map the fluid dynamics of these processes. This mapping can delineate bypassed pay and yield the extent of flooding. We use COMSOL Multiphysics to simulate the borehole TEM system in 2D and 3D models of waterflooded and CO2-flooded reservoirs. These simulations prove the efficacy of this technology in providing deep and azimuthally sensitive measurements and illustrate how TEM diffusion responds to electrical resistivity contrasts.
Study of Resonant Coupling
Featured Paper by G. Boopalan & C. K. Subramaniam

Non contact charging of electronic equipment from mobiles to electric vehicle has created immense interest among researchers. There are various groups working on both radiative and non-radiative energy transfer. The idea based on strongly coupled magnetic resonances is of interest because of the increased distance of energy transfer. This technology based on resonant magnetic coupling with the introduction of negative refractive index materials in the environment is also novel and exciting. We simulate and analyze the effects of introduction of various materials between the resonant coils. The structure and physical parameters play an important role in efficiency and quantum of energy transfer. The array size of the various materials and structure has an important effect on the transfer coefficient. Since the permittivity and permeability of the two media have different features, the components of the electric field (or the magnetic field) changes when the observation point is moving towards the interface. This property and feature can be studied before optimizing the structure and physical nature of the system. The simulations are done using COMSOL Multiphysics a finite element analysis software. Some interesting results evolve as we introduce various medium in the environment. These aspects will be experimentally verified by studying a real time system.
SWRO (Desalination) Biofilm
Featured Paper by E.M. Glenn

Water-and-energy supply is a global issue of paramount importance. The demand for safe potable water is quickly exceeding the limits of natural regional water resources. Like oil, water is a finite resource; unlike oil, however, water has no alternatives. Water, energy and their environmentally sound solutions are interrelated; and of all the present-day environmental problems, those related to energy-and-water will have the worst long-term consequences if not resolved. Spiral-wound-reverse-osmosis (SWRO) desalination provides an alternative water resource that is both energy-efficient and highly-effective in removing particulate matter to well within the EPA’s NPDWRs. Thermodynamically SWRO is an isothermal, reversible process that is closer to the lower energy limit than any other present-day desalination process. Real-world energy consumption, however, still accounts for +50% of the total operating cost of SWRO desalination plants. According to the U.S. Desalination and Water Purification Roadmap, membrane-permeability and fouling-resistance are primary economic drivers which translate directly to the energy footprint of these multi-megawatt facilities, whereby biofouling (marine-bacteria-biofilms) is considered the "Achilles Heel" of SWRO-membrane processes. , Concurrent research demonstrating the feasibility of dielectrophoresis as a biofouling remediation technology revealed that colloidal particles can be effectively levitated to a steady height above a SWRO-membrane. This study is still largely inconclusive in that only clay-colloids were examined; the electrokinetic properties of which are drastically different than those of marine-bacteria. Rather than developing potentially-cost-prohibitive SWRO-membrane embedded microelectrode arrays, the primary focus of the simulation studies being conducted (utilizing COMSOL Multiphysics version 4.3; AC/DC, Microfluidics, & Particle-Tracing-Modules) are focused on developing a pretreatment-filtration device that is immediately upstream of the SWRO-membranes (d_p: 1-1000µm). The mCD device is an ideal desalination feasibility study platform. In order to better quantitatively describe the performance characteristics of a mCD device, numerical simulation efforts are being conducted utilizing COMSOL Mulitphysics.
Thermal Analysis of Packaged
Featured Paper by A. Dobrinsky, M. Shatalov M. Shur & R. Gaska

Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes (DUV LEDs) are presently operating at a relatively low efficiency, thus large amount of LED driving power is dissipating in heat. Thermal heating degrades LED performance and decreases LED’s lifetime. The degradation of DUV LED devices with temperature increase makes thermal management a key issue for DUV LEDs. We present a thermal analysis of DUV LED device by first investigating the thermal resistance of LED chip layers and interfaces, and then considering the overall heating of the LED package. COMSOL's AC/DC Module together with Heat Trasnfer Module was used to analyze the transient heating of the device. In addition, COMSOL Multiphysics Joule Heating interface has been used to analyze the thermal heating of the packaged DUV LED device. The modeled geometry included TO-39 package, submount and DUV LED die for realistic thermal simulations. Figure 1, shows a typical temperature distribution around DUV LED die mounted on submount and TO-39 package. The dissipated power in the device is 0.87Watts, and resulted junction temperature is 13 degrees above ambient. The temperature rise at the DUV LED die is primarily due to thermal resistance of submount, epoxy layer at the submount/TO-39 interface and thermal resistance of TO-39 package. For the calculations shown in Figure 1 the bottom surface of TO-39 package was maintained at the ambient temperature of 296K. To analyze detailed resistance of various interfaces, the transient heating analysis is performed and compared to experimental data for junction resistance fitting. The LED die is also investigated for temperature variations along semiconductor layers to locate regions of high temperature and high temperature gradients. The thermal analysis of DUV LEDs allowed us to identify thermal “bottlenecks” leading to overall device heating and temperature rise at the DUV LED die. The simulations also identified possible routes that will improve thermal management of the LED device and increase its performance and lifetime.
FEM-Simulation of a Printed
Featured Paper by H. Schweiger, T. Göstenkors, R. Bau & D. Zielke

In this paper we want to figure out the development of a capacitive acceleration-sensor system with the FEM-Method. The sensor-system is in the position to detect accelerations in the range of ±20 g. Furthermore the sensor-element contains a printed RF-inductance, which is used for contactless data transfer. On the one hand the simulation of the L-C-oscillating circuit using the RF Module of COMSOL is shown, on the other hand the simulation of the sensor itself was done. The deflection of the sensor by an acceleration load was calculated and the change in sensor’s capacitance by the resulting deflection was evaluated. The changed capacitance of the sensor leads to a change in resonance frequency of the oscillating circuit, which could be detected.
Modeling Microwave Chiral
Featured Paper by J. Muñoz, G.J. Molina & M.M. Rojo

Electromagnetic metamaterials present exotic and unusual properties hardly to be found in nature with many potential applications. They are usually built by distributing small resonant structures in periodical lattices. If the structure has chiral symmetry, the medium is called chiral metamaterial. Here the electrodynamics behavior of a chiral structure with a huge electromagnetic activity at microwave frequencies is modeled by making use of COMSOL Multiphysics RF's Module and successfully compared to the experiment. Linearly and circularly polarized modes at normal incidence have been simulated and different experimental conditions have been modeled to extract reflection and transmission coefficients for the electromagnetic characterization of the sample.
Numerical Optimization
Featured Paper by C. Caiseda, V. Aksyuk & I. Griva

The optimal design of the grating coupler for surface plasmon generation is revisited for its interdisciplinary importance in the efficient use of energy, and the strong dependence of the energy convergence rate of the system on the design. This work contributes a comprehensive gradient based numerical optimization technique to optimize both geometry of the grating and parameters of the Gaussian beam simultaneously. The method modifies all geometrical boundaries of each groove independently in a fixed mesh. The efficiency of energy conversion between the Gaussian beam and the plasmon is maximized. The conversion rate of the optimal design is significantly greater than the initial uniform design. Results show the practical value of these tools to be used on a n-grooves grating.
Optimized Illumination
Featured Paper by M. Csete, Á. Sipos, A. Szalai & G. Szabó

The optimal orientations of different single-photon detector designs were determined by COMSOL software package. Absorption of niobium-nitride (NbN) stripes in two different (p=220 nm, 3p=660 nm) periodic patterns integrated with plasmonic elements was studied. In OC-SNSPDs consisting of ~quarter-photon-wavelength nano-cavity the optimum direction is perpendicular incidence onto NbN stripes in P-orientation. Improved absorptance is attainable in S-orientation of nano-cavity-array integrated NCAI-SNSPDs, and of nano-cavity-deflector-array integrated NCDAI-SNSPD. In short-periodic NCAI-SNSPD polar-angle-independent perfect absorptance is achievable, while in long-periodic NCAI-SNSPD surface waves result in absorptance enhancement at specific orientations. Illumination of long-periodic NCDAI-SNSPDs at polar angle corresponding to double resonance condition makes possible to reach 82% absorptance due to E-field enhancement via plasmonic modes resonant in nano-cavities and propagating below NbN stripes.
Passive Microsensor Based
Featured Paper by D.A. Sanz Becerra, E.A. Unigarro Calpa, J. Osma & F. Segura

A scheme for inductive wireless powering and readout of passive LC sensor is presented. The sensor’s inductor is designed as a planar square coil and is used as the power receiving component. The capacitor is connected directly to the inductor and it was designed as an interdigital capacitor. With a transmitting coil (coupling antenna), an electromagnetic field is generated which couples with the sensor, affecting the impedance of the coupling antenna. This work studies the effects of permittivity variations in a capacitive transducer. All the fabrication and characterization processes were carried out at the clean room of the Universidad de los Andes. The design and the simulation of the wireless passive micro-sensor based on LC resonators were made using COMSOL-4.2a.
Superconducting RF Cavity
Featured Paper by I. Terechkine, T. Khabiboulline & D. Sergatskov

Performance degradation of a superconducting RF cavity after quenching in an external magnetic field was calculated using COMSOL. This degradation is due to the increased resistance of a superconducting surface with trapped magnetic flux. The amount of the trapped flux depends on the size of the normally-conducting opening that develops in the superconducting wall of a cavity during quenching. This size is found by solving time dependent problem of heat propagation in walls of RF cavities; the trapped flux can be found by making static magnetic modeling for any specific geometry that includes the quenching cavity and a source of the magnetic field. Results of simulation are compared with the data obtained in a specially designed experiment.
Thermo-Elastic Response
Featured Paper by J. Jimenez-Lozano, P. Vacas-Jacques & W. Franco

Radiofrequency (RF) technology offers unique advantages for noninvasive selective heating of relatively large volumes of tissue. In this work, we present a mathematical model for selective non-invasive, non-ablative RF heating of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue (with detailed fiber septa structures) including their thermo-elastic response. Our analysis shows that the fiber septa architecture affect the static electric field within subcutaneous fat. There is greater electric power absorption in the fiber septa filaments than in fat and it favors the flux of electric current density. When reaching the thermal steady-state, fiber septa contributes to enhance the selective heating of subcutaneous fat tissue. Fiber septa shows shrinkage due to its thermoelastic response, agreeing with clinical observations.
Topographic Effects on
Featured Paper by R. Duval, C. Fauchard & R. Antoine

We study the topography influence of levees on the electric resistivity signal obtained with the Radio-Magnetotelluric method. Field measurements have been modeled with COMSOL, using the AC/DC and RF Modules. A levee situated in Orléans along the Loire river (France) has been considered in order to design a model tacking account of the skin depth and the incident wavelength, keeping a constant field in the whole model. The effect of the incident electromagnetic field direction is assessed with two different incident wave directions: BBC 5 and France-Inter. The simulations highlight the tri-dimensional effects in the apparent resistivity, observed on the crest of the levee, depending on the incident field direction and topography. A buried gas pipe is also characterized.
Feature range and user experience are sometimes seen as mutually exclusive. The ever-increasing complexity of de-sign tasks means that engineers need a broad range of powerful simulation tools and features at their disposal, but only a few of these will be helpful in any one situation. Knowing which feature to use and when to use it can be a skill in its own right. CST STUDIO SUITE® 2013 streamlines the simulation process without compromising on its power or flexibility. CST - Computer Simulation Technology
8 ways to improve your
Watch this webcast and see how your company can enhance design collaboration, data management, and process tracking to prevent delays and minimize costs. Dassault Systèmes
Intel First-Quarter 2018
Intel First-Quarter 2018 Financial Results Presentation Intel
IP Security Assurance Standard
A System on Chip (SoC) or Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is comprised of multiple components referred to as Intellectual Property (IP) blocks or just IP. These blocks come from multiple sources such as internal development teams, IP suppliers, tool-generated IP, etc. Typically, the SoC/ASIC owner integrates multiple IPs from multiple sources, which raises concerns about security risk. How much risk is the Silicon owner (i.e., Integrator) inheriting? What potential security concerns exist that the Integrator must address to ensure the security objectives of the SoC/ASIC are upheld? This paper introduces an emerging new standard called IP Security Assurance (IPSA) to address these concerns in a manner that is low-overhead, non-disruptive, and scalable across IP families. The standard specifies an approach to highlight IP assets and associated entries in the Common IP Security Concerns Enumeration (CIPSCE) knowledge base for the mitigation implementer to address. Acellera
What's New in VSS v2009
Visual System Simulator (VSS) is complete and comprehensive software for the design of today's complex communications systems. VSS technology provides engineers with the ability to design the right system architecture as well as formulate suitable specifications for each of the underlying components in the communications designs. Like AWR's flagship Microwave Office software, VSS is also built upon the AWR unique unified data model; seamlessly providing for system and circuit level co-simulation.

Communication standards presently supported include:
  • LTE
  • WiMAX/ 802.16d-2004/802.16e-2005 (mobile and fixed)
  • CDMA2000
  • WLAN/802.11a/b/g
  • IS95
Applied Wave Research, Inc. (AWR)
Creation of Virtual Platform
Propose a methodology for the SoC companies / IP vendors to quick start their ESL activity CircuitSutra Technologies Pvt Ltd.
picoPower Labs: SleepWalking
SleepWalking: evaluating input data without using the CPU, on the 32-bit AVR microcontroller UC3L. Saving Power without sacrificing functionalities and performance. Atmel Corporation
Freescale HC05 evaluation
Cosmic tools for Freescale HC05 family, evaluation version limited to 1k. Cosmic Software
STMicroelectronics ST7
Cosmic tools for the ST7 family, evaluation version limited to 4k. Cosmic Software
Stone is a design management tool. Version 0.1 of stone supports conversion of Register specification to Dyumnin Technologies
Helping you avoid stack
One of the toughest (and unfortunately common) problems in embedded systems is stack overflows and the collateral corruption that it can cause. As a result, we have spent considerable effort inventing creative ways our customers can deal with this problem. ThreadX developers have an array of tools at their disposal to detect and even avoid stack overflow problems. Express Logic, Inc
Designing a CE-ATA Verification
In this paper we describe a verification environment developed for the emerging CE-ATA interface that can be used as a plug-n-play verification component into any SoC that implements a CE-ATA bus. Globetech Solutions
IMST Imagefolder
IMST GmbH is a center of excellence and developer of professional radio technology. We are proud to look back on more than 17 years of success. There have been many changes since 1992, but the values that created IMST – innovation, integrity and smart partnerships – have remained. We have held on to this tradition and it has served us well. IMST GmbH
Efficient model-based
From a given technological node to the next, parameter dispersion (due to process variations) and optical distortions (from layout to lithography) are strongly increasing. These phenomena, together with the ever increasing IC complexity, are impacting on yield and reliability. A methodology has to be defined to improve them for a nanometer scale process. To achieve that, an efficient prediction and monitoring of the IC performances has to be performed.   InfiniScale®
Parametric Yield: If
Since sub-65nm technologies, Predefined corners (PDC) verification attains its limits. Corners number to be verified becomes huge with always the possibility of over-design. The worst is that these corners cannot guarantee the design; some corners could fall inside the process parameters space while others could not really need to be tested. InfiniScale®
A Unified Analog Design
Technology scale miniaturization and increased wireless and wireline designs result in complex RF and mixed-signal SoC designs growth thus requiring accurate prediction earlier in the design schedule.From the other side, the rapidly expanding telecommunications market and time-to-market pressures impose that the number of design iterations must be minimized. InfiniScale®
Design of ST planar integrated
IC Design is driven by two simultaneous trends: miniaturization of microelectronics technology, and telecommunication market expansion . When considered at a user level, these trends seem to be compatible: by making devices smaller, integration of a larger number of functionalities in your smart phone is made possible and thus boosts the development of the telecom market. InfiniScale®
Acoustic echo cancellers
Broad market development of mobile devices and increase their computing power gave   new   opportunities.   Now   handset   mobile   gadgets   incorporate   new communication functions  like  audio/videoconferencing  which were  previously  only available   in   the   professional   or   premium   grade   devices.   Popular   services   like FaceTime, Skype, Oovoo, Qik come to the mobile market as well. IntegrIT
Usage of COTS VoIP products
Indirectly,   there   is   big   desire   to   have   cross­platform   implementation.   Cross­ platform   idea   is   a   little   bit   cloudy   thing   because   many   people   understand   it differently. It may mean support of different processors, compilers, operating system, graphics and so on. IntegrIT
Package Converter Compliments
The Semiconductor industry enabling today’s electronics market place is widely disseminated between multiple customer factions such as consumer electronics, telecommunications, automotive, medical devices, military, aerospace, industrial controls, embedded computing and other industries. Ironwood Electronics
Enhanced interconnect
In high performance embedded systems test application, the requirement for accurate measurement of AC and DC parameter is often critical. During development phase, IC devices are not permanently attached to the target board. Instead IC devices are connected via interconnect medium to the target board. Ironwood Electronics
Role of Sockets in IC
For over half a century, the semiconductor industry has been governed by a commonly known principle described as Moore’s Law. This “law” predicts that through technological advancement a doubling of the number of transistors per integrated circuit will occur within a given geometric area on regular 18 month intervals. Ironwood Electronics
Adapters & Sockets for
For today’s electronic module and equipment designer, product life-cycle management has become an increasingly important competitive consideration for initial product design as it relates to both ongoing manufacturing and to end-use customer application. Ironwood Electronics
Achieving GHz Speed in
For many products designed with today’s high-performance integrated circuits, BGA socketing systems are an essential option during the design, testing, and/or production phases of a new product development process. Ironwood Electronics
Achieving GHz Speed in
For many products designed with today’s high-performance integrated circuits, BGA socketing systems are an essential option during the design, testing, and/or production phases of a new product development process. Ironwood Electronics
Zeit ist Geld – Echtzeit
Practice-oriented talk describing how SymTA/S scheduling analysis helped BMW in verifying and optimizing an OSEK ECU of their new Active Front Steering System. The talk was held at the EUROFORUM "SW im Automobil", 2007: * reliability enhancements * resolving critical timings * scheduling analysis in HIL testing * exploiting ECU performance reserves * cost savings Symtavision GmbH
Medical Demo
Here is our collection of Wind River Tilcon Graphics Suite industry-specific demos. To see what can be achieved in as little as half the development time of traditional graphic library solutions, download demos to a local folder before running the EXE file. Windows XP or Windows Vista is required. Tilcon Software
VN-Spec / vManager Interoperability
Software development flows are often more thorough and well defined than hardware flows as far as specification lifecycle and requirements management are concerned. Reqtify, a requirement traceability tool developed by the Valiosys Group, is already used in this area by many customers worldwide. TransEDA
How to Evaluate Embedded
Provides data that engineers should consider when evaluating embedded software test automation tools, specifically dynamic test automation tools. Vector Software, Inc.
Accelerating Innovation
This whitepaper is the first in a series of three that will address these challenges. The paper will examine the challenge of achieving high quality while controlling costs. Topics covered will include: review of the limitations inherent in traditional methods, current best practices, and successful solution strategies that have been proven at leading global organizations in the automotive industry. MKS Inc.
Harmonizing Modeling
Product engineering organizations face the incredible challenge of ever shrinking market windows for innovation. These opportunities if missed, can lead to huge costs and overwhelming complexity, that can compromise quality and lead to very expensive recalls. Innovating in the face of these pressures require organizations to rethink their disconnected modeling practices and move to a unified lifecycle management approach integrating models into the core engineering process. MKS Inc.
Agile Development Doesn't
This paper will show that Agile practices and approaches must be blended with proven enterprise practices to achieve the right mix of agility and discipline. Scalability is achieved by leveraging a robust and unified application lifecycle management solution to automate processes and activities where possible, improve visibility and transparency across the organization, and automatically provide status reporting as a byproduct of the activities the team performs using the solution. MKS Inc.
WP286 - Continuing Experiments
In the September 2005 issue of IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, the article entitled The Rosetta Experiment: Atmospheric Soft Error Rate Testing in Differing Technology FPGAs [Ref 1] described real-time experiments that evaluated large Xilinx FPGAs fabricated in two CMOS technologies (150 nm and 130 nm) for their sensitivity to radiation-induced, single-event upsets and detailed the results from simulation, beam testing, and atmospheric testing. These results were compared to circuit simulation (QCRIT) studies as well as to LANSCE neutron beam results. Xilinx, Inc
//yx channel_transform
This document describes guidelines of the channel to channel assignment for eXCite’s new pragma //yx channel_transform. The basic usage of this pragma can be found in the eXCite documentation. Y Explorations, Inc.
Configurable Memory Control
Configurable Memory Control for System-on-Chip Designs Palmchip Corp.
High-Level SCM Best Practices
Promotes some high-level best practices that reflect the authors' experiences in deploying SCM. Perforce Software Inc.
CST STUDIO SUITE 2013 Brochure
CST - Computer Simulation Technology
EMIT - Rapid Identification
CST - Computer Simulation Technology
MEN Micro’s New M-Module
The M-Module has been developed according to the ANSI Mezzanine standard and extends a carrier board with eight relay outputs, which can be read out via a read-modify-write access. • 8 relay outputs • 1 A switching power per relay • One throw-over contact per relay • Output voltage range max. 48 V • No separate supply voltage • -40°C to +85°C (screened) The M-Module M43N supports eight relay outputs with free potential switching of the signals. The status of each relay can be read out via the read-modify-write access. The implemented relays guarantee maximum reliability and long service life. All components of the M43N are firmly soldered to shock and vibration and are approved for a temperature range of -40°C to +85°C. M-Modules – an ANSI-VITA standard since 1997 – are ideally suited for the connection of binary and analog process I/O, robotics, motion and measurement functions. As an extension to all current bus systems such as CompactPCI, ComapctPCI Serial, VMEbus or independent SBCs, mezzanine modules complement each application in a tailor-made and modular manner.
Low-power 6U VME SBC
Aitech Defense Systems Inc. now offers a new rugged 6U VME single board computer (SBC) that brings the powerful QorIQ T1042, or higher performance T2081, multi-core processor to embedded systems, significantly increasing previous generation computing capabilities. The C114 is backward compatible with Aitech’s popular earlier generation PPC-based C106 and C108 boards, while incorporating the NXP Secure Boot and Trust 2.0 Architecture for improved data security.
NCAB Group Acquires Multiprint
NCAB Group Acquires Bare
intoPIX announces TicoRAW
intoPIX is proud to announce that TicoRAW technology is integrated by Novitec in their new g-Nova23S camera. The Novitec g-Nova23S has a Global Shutter image sensor that can accurately capture 4K and HD high-speed moving objects and transmit real-time images over long distances using TicoRAW. TicoRAW is transmitted straight out of the camera via Ethernet or wireless. Streaming RAW data with 10x less bandwidth with zero latency and highest speed software decoding allow Novitec camera users to stream RAW image data more efficiently. intoPIX s.a.

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