In addition to the measures presented in our consolidated financial statements, we regularly review other metrics, defined as non-GAAP financial measures by the SEC, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends, prepare financial forecasts and make strategic decisions. The key metrics we consider are non-GAAP Gross Profit, non-GAAP Gross Margin, non-GAAP Operating Expenses, non-GAAP Operating Income, non-GAAP Operating Margin, non-GAAP Profit before Tax, non-GAAP Provision for Income Tax, non-GAAP Net Income, non-GAAP Net Income per Share, EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin (collectively, “Non-GAAP Financial Measures”). These Non-GAAP Financial Measures provide supplemental information regarding our operating performance on a non-GAAP basis that excludes certain gains, losses and charges of a noncash nature or that occur relatively infrequently and/or that management considers to be unrelated to our core operations, and in the case of non-GAAP Provision for Income Tax, management believes that this non-GAAP measure of income taxes provides it with the ability to evaluate the non-GAAP Provision for Income Taxes across different reporting periods on a consistent basis, independent of special items and discrete items, which may vary in size and frequency. By presenting these Non-GAAP Financial Measures, we provide a basis for comparison of our business operations between periods by excluding items that we do not believe are indicative of our core operating performance, and we believe that investors’ understanding of our performance is enhanced by our presenting these Non-GAAP Financial Measures, as they provide a reasonable basis for comparing our ongoing results of operations. Management believes that tracking and presenting these Non-GAAP Financial Measures provides management and the investment community with valuable insight into matters such as our ongoing core operations and the underlying business trends that are affecting our performance. These Non-GAAP Financial Measures are used by both management and our board of directors, together with the comparable GAAP information, in evaluating our current performance and planning our future business activities. We believe that these Non-GAAP Financial Measures, when used in conjunction with our GAAP financial information, also allow investors to better evaluate our financial performance in comparison to other periods and to other companies in our industry.
These Non-GAAP Financial Measures have significant limitations as analytical tools. Some of these limitations are that:
- such measures do not reflect our cash expenditures, or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
- such measures exclude certain costs which are important in analyzing our GAAP results;
- such measures do not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
- such measures do not reflect the interest expense, or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on our debt;
- such measures do not reflect our tax expense or the cash requirements to pay our taxes; although depreciation and amortization are noncash charges excluded from our non-GAAP results, the assets being depreciated and amortized will often have to be replaced in the future;
- such measures do not reflect any cash requirements for such replacements; and
- other companies in our industry may calculate such measures differently than we do, thereby further limiting their usefulness as comparative measures.
These Non-GAAP Financial Measures are supplemental measures of our performance that are neither required by, nor presented in accordance with, GAAP. These Non-GAAP Financial Measures should not be considered as substitutes for GAAP financial measures such as gross profit, gross margin, net income or any other performance measures derived in accordance with GAAP. Also, in the future we may incur expenses or charges such as those added back in the calculation of these Non-GAAP Financial Measures. Our presentation of these Non-GAAP Financial Measures should not be construed as an inference that future results will be unaffected by unusual or nonrecurring items.
Our prior disclosure referred to non-GAAP Gross Profit and non-GAAP Gross Margin as Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted Gross Margin, respectively. No changes have been made to how we calculate these measures.
Non-GAAP Gross Profit and Non-GAAP Gross Margin
We calculate non-GAAP Gross Profit and non-GAAP Gross Margin excluding the items below from cost of goods sold in applicable periods. We calculate non-GAAP Gross Margin as non-GAAP Gross Profit divided by total net sales.
- PSL and Sanken Distribution Agreement – Represents the elimination of inventory cost amortization and foundry service payment related to one-time costs incurred in connection with the PSL Divestiture.
- Stock-based compensation – Represents noncash expenses arising from the grant of stock awards.
- AMTC Facility consolidation one-time costs – Represents one-time costs incurred in connection with closing of the AMTC Facility and transitioning of test and assembly functions to the AMPI Facility announced and initiated in fiscal year 2020, consisting of moving equipment between facilities, contract terminations and other non-recurring charges. The closure and transition of the AMTC Facility is expected to be substantially complete by the end of March 2021. These costs are in addition to, and not duplicative of, the adjustments noted in note (*) below.
- Amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets – Represents noncash expenses associated with the amortization of intangible assets in connection with the acquisition of Voxtel, Inc., which closed in August 2020.
- COVID-19 related expenses – Represents expenses attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic primarily related to increased purchases of masks, gloves and other protective materials, and overtime premium compensation paid for maintaining 24-hour service at the AMPI Facility.
(*) Non-GAAP Gross Profit and the corresponding calculation of non-GAAP Gross Margin in this release do not include adjustments consisting of:
- Additional AMTC related costs – Represents costs related to the closing of the AMTC Facility and the transitioning of test and assembly functions to the AMPI Facility in the Philippines announced in fiscal year 2020 consisting of: the net savings expected to result from the capacity transition to the AMPI Facility, which facility had duplicative capacity based on the buildouts of the AMPI Facility in fiscal years 2019 and 2018. The elimination of these costs did not reduce our production capacity and therefore did not have direct effects on our ability to generate revenue. The closure and transition of the AMTC Facility is expected to be substantially complete by the end of March 2021.
- Out of period adjustment for depreciation expense of giant magnetoresistance assets (“GMR assets”) – Represents a one-time depreciation expense related to the correction of an immaterial error, related to 2017, for certain manufacturing assets that have reached the end of their useful lives.
- Labor savings – Represents salary and benefit costs related to employees whose positions were eliminated through voluntary separation programs or other reductions in force (not associated with the closure of the AMTC Facility or any other plant or facility) and a restructuring of overhead positions from high-cost to low-cost jurisdictions net of costs for newly hired employees in connection with such restructuring.
Non-GAAP Operating Expenses, non-GAAP Operating Income and non-GAAP Operating Margin
We calculate non-GAAP Operating Expenses and non-GAAP Operating Income excluding the same items excluded above to the extent they are classified as operating expenses, and also excluding the items below in applicable periods. We calculate non-GAAP Operating Margin as non-GAAP Operating Income divided by total net sales.
- Transaction fees – Represents transaction-related legal and consulting fees incurred primarily in connection with (i) the unsuccessful acquisition of a competitor in fiscal year 2019, (ii) the acquisition of Voxtel, Inc. in fiscal year 2020, and (iii) the PSL Divestiture and the transfer of the Sanken products distribution business to PSL in fiscal year 2020.
- Severance – Represents severance costs associated with (i) labor savings initiatives to manage overall compensation expense as a result of the declining sales volume during the applicable period, including a voluntary separation incentive payment plan for employees near retirement and a reduction in force and (ii) the closing of the AMTC Facility and the transitioning of test and assembly functions to the AMPI Facility announced and initiated in fiscal year 2020.
EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin
We calculate EBITDA as net income minus interest income (expense), tax provision, and depreciation and amortization expenses. We calculate Adjusted EBITDA as EBITDA excluding the same items excluded above and also excluding the items below in applicable periods. We calculate Adjusted EBITDA Margin as Adjusted EBITDA divided by total net sales.